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FOODS:

THEIR COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS.

TniUD Edition. In large 8vo. Cloth, with Tables and Illustrations. Price 21b.

POISONS: Thci*- Effects and Detection.

By A. WYNTBB BLYTH, M.B.C.S., P.C.S., Barrister-at-Law, Public Analyst for the County of Devon, ifcc. " Undoubtedly THE MOST complete work o;i Toxicology in our language."— '/Ae Analyst (on the Third Edition). , ,

" As a PRACTICAL GUIDE, we know NO BETTER work. -r-The Lancet (on the Third Edition).

HYGIENE (A Handbook of). By Surgeon-Major A. . M. Davies, D.P.H. Camb., late Assistant-Professor of Hygiene, Aiiny Medical School Pocket Size. Leather. With Illustrations. 12s. 6d. " This ADMIRABLE HANDBOOK."— Ml. Med. Joumcd.

" The elegant dress of the little volume before us is but ths outer covering of a TRULY RICH KERNEL, and justly merits the praise it spontaneously calls forth. . . . Compact, handy, comprehensive, it certainly merits a high place among the text- books of the dnj."— Sanitary Record.

DISINFECTION and DISINFECTANTS. With an Account of the Chemical Substances used as Antiseptics and Preservath^es. By Sajfuel RtDBAL, D.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S., Examiner in Chemistry to the Royal College of Physi- cians. With Diagrams of the most approved Modern Appliances. 128. 6d. " Dr BiDEAL'S volume is bound to prove of great value."— P^iarTnacewt. Journal. "An EXHAUSTrra Treatise dealing with the whole range of the subject :— Disin- fection by Heat, Chemical Disinfectants, Practical Methods, Personal Disinfection, Legal Regulations, and Methods of Analysis ... so very well done and so USEFUL that it will be valued by all connected with Sanitation and iPublic Health. —Chemist and Drvggist.

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LONDON: CHARLES GRIFFIN & CO., LIMITED; EXETER STREET, STRAND.

FAIRBANK'S O L E O-ST E A R I N E x65.

MICROSCOPICAL CHARACTERS OF LARD AND BEEF

CRYSTALS.

}■ fnntispictc.-

FOODS:

THEIE COMPOSITION ANB ANALYSIS.

A MANUAL FOR THE USE OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS AND OTHERS.

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY ON THE HISTORY OF ADUL TERA TION.

BY

ALEXANDER WYNTER / BLYTH.

M.R.C.S., F.I.C., F.C.S., &ct ^

BAKRISTEK AT LAW ; PUBLIC ANALYST FOR THE COUNTY OF DEVON, AND MEDICAL OFFICEK. OF HEALTH AND PUBLIC ANALYST FOR ST. MAIIYLEBONE.

With Numerous Tables and Illustrations.

FOURTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED.

LONDON:

CHARLES GRIFFIN AND COMPANY, LIMITED j EXETER STREET, STRAND. 1896.

UNlVEREiTY lf UID*

I f V n ^ fl, ,vr c-r r^i f) ; 3

PEEFACE TO THE FOUETH EDITION.

The progress of analytical chemistry as applied to the investiga- tion of Foods has made such rapid strides since the previous edition of the present work, that the author has had consider- able difficulty in revising the pages so as to embody all that is of value, and, at the same time, retain the handy size of the older edition.

Processes which experience has shown to be faulty or imper- fect, have been omitted and replaced by new matter, and greater attention has been paid to the application of purely physical methods.

A number of new diagrams and new tables have been added. The author believes that the .work in its present form not only embodies the results of his own personal experience, but fairly represents the views and details the methods of the modern Food-analyst.

The Court House,

St. Marylebone, W.,

February, 1896.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The following pages are an instalment of the Second Edition of the Author's ''Manual of Practical Chemistry''' the JFirst Part of the New Edition being now issued separately under the title of ''Foods: their Composition and Analysis,'' and the Second Part under that of " Poisons : their Effects and Detection." The reasons for the alteration of the title are sufficient!)^ ob- vious : the present appellation is distinctive, rendering impos- sible any confusion between this Manual and others (of a widely different scope and manner of treatment) which might come equally under the designation, "Practical Chemistry."

The present Volume, however, is not a mere reprint of the Division, " Foods" in the First Edition. It has been thoroughly revised and re-written, where necessary, and enlarged by the addition of new matter to more than double the number of pages allotted to the subject in the original work.

The Historical Introduction prefixed is the result of consider- able labour and research, and, it is hoped, will be found together with the review of English Legislation, Past and Present, relative to Adulteration not without interest. As in the First Edition, abstracts of a few legal cases are given at the end of the chief Articles. These have been carefully selected, as illustrative either of ingenious defence, or of certain points in the Adulteration Acts. It has often been remarked that private individuals rarely avail themselves of the " Sale of Food and Drugs " Act. This, probably, is due to insufficient acquaintance with the technical details of the mode of proce- dure, and the Author has, therefore, been careful to explain the " Purchase " sections fully in their relations both to the official Inspector and to the private purchaser. In the Appendix will be found the Text, entire, of the English laws at present ia

viii PREFACE.

operation, as well as tlie best and most recent of the American Acts relating to the Adulteration of Food.

In the Scientific Portion of the work, the professional Chemist wm find details of most of the processes of any value in Food Analysis hitherto published, and in all cases (either by the aid of Footnotes, or in the Bibliography appended to each Ai^icle) the original source of the information is indicated. In addition, are given a large number of Processes, either invented or im- proved by the Author, and not previously published— such, e.g., as those described in the Articles on Milk, Butter, Tea, Flour, "Wtxtcr (fee.

Numerous Tables, some of which are indispensable and others convenient, have also been added ; and new Illustrations, from original drawings, introduced.

The Article on Milk— 2. special feature of the First Edition- is still farther enlarged, and contains the Author's most recent researches on the subject. It may, perhaps, be considered a fairly complete Monograph. In the Article on Water (added by request) the application of an improved process for combustion in a vacuum is detailed, and the importance of Biological methods of examination is insisted upon— not as supplementary to Chemical tests, but as of equal (if not of superior) value to

Though the scope of the Manual is mainly that of a Labora- tory Handbook, yet the dietetic and medical aspects of the more important Foods are, where necessary, fully considered, and the Author believes that a great proportion of the work is thus of that general interest which will render it useful to those who, without much chemical knowledge, yet desire to have, in a form admitting of easy reference, the latest information relative to Foods and Beverages.

In conclusion, he can only express a hope that the work, m its new shape, will be found widely useful, and more worthy of the very kind reception accorded to the First Edition.

OouBT House, St. Mabylbbons, April, 1883.

CONTENTS.

PART I.— HISTORY OF ADULTERATION,

I. EARLY NOTICES OF ADULTERATION, ESPECIALLY IN ENGLAND.

Section _ Page

1. Roman and Greek Notices of Adulteration, .... 3

2. Low Standard of Commercial Morality in the Eleventh, and

Twelfth Centuries, 5

Assizes of Bread Bakers.

3. Early Regulations in England relative to the Assize of Bread, . 5

Statute of Assize, 1582, &

Frauds of the Bakers 7

Brewers and Vintners.

4. Beer, 8-

Fraudulent Practices of early Brewers, Ale-tasters, ... 9

5. Wine, 9

Spices— Drugs.

6. Regulations of the Pepperers, 10"

Regulations of the Druggists and Grocers, . . . . 11

n. adulteration in France.

7. General Inspection of Provisions in Olden Time by the "Police

des Commissaires," and Ancient Regulations relative to

the Adulteration of Beer, 12

8. Flour and Bread Various Decrees relative to, ... 12 Punishments of French Bakers by Penance, &c., ... 12

9. Wine— A Curious Decree of the Provost of Paris, ... 13 Inspectors of Wines and Drinks appointed, .... 13

Poisonous Wine, 13

" Vin lie Raisin de Bois," 14

10. Butter— Regulations relative to the Sale of, ... . 14

11. Drugs, 14

12. Conseils de Salubrite', 15-

X

CONTENTS.

III. ADULTEBATION IN GERMANY.

Section

13. The Old German Guilds,

14. Old German Regulations relating to Bread, .... ■IK Wine, . . .

" Drugs— Establishment of

ID. >> . °

the Continental Pharmacopceias

IV. HISTORY OF ENGLISH LEGISLATION WITH REGARD TO THE ADULTERATION OF FOOD.

17. First General Food Act, 1860

18. Bakers— Bread,

19. Acts relating to Beer and Porter, ....

20. Wines,

21. The Tea Acts, \ * ^

22. The Coffee Acts— History of Regulations as to Chicory una

Coifee,

23. The Select Committee, 1855, :„ The Analytical Sanitary Commission of the Lancet,

24. The Adulteration Acts, 1860 and 1872, .

25. The Select Committee, 1874, . -.^ * '

26. The Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, 18/5 and Ib/y, .

The " Prejudice " question,

Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1879, ....

Pago 15 IG 16

18

18 19 20 20 21

21-24 24 25

26-28 28 29 29 31

HISTORY OP THE PRESENT SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES FOR THE DETECTION

OF ADULTERATION.

32 32 32

27. Early Workers

28. Discovery of Milk-sugar by Bartoletus,

The Experiments of Francesco Redi, &c., ^ ' , '

29. The Works of the Hon. Robert Boyle, and of J. B. Vauden

Sande,

30. The Invention of the Microscope. . ^- Antony Van Leeuweuhoek, Dr. Hy. Power, Ehrenberg, Donne,

31. General Advance of Chemistry : Neumann Caspar, Loerhaave,

Berzelius, &c.,

32. Accum's work.— "Death in the Pot," , -r, \ '

33 The Works on Adulteration of Food, &c. , by Bossy and Boutron-

Chavlard, Gamier and Harel, and Fnedrich, . .

34 The Works of John Mitchell, Chevallier, and Normandy,

35 Chevallier's Dictionary— Alphonse Normandy's Handbook, .

36 Dr. Hassall's Contributions to the " Lancet," . . 37*. The Establishment of the Society of Public Analysts,

The "Analvst" "Limits," . n ' 38. A list of General Treatises on Adulteration chronologically arranged,

VI THE PRESENT LAW IN ENGLAI.D RELATIVE TO ADULTERATION OF FOOD.

The Sale of Food and Drugs Act 38 and 39 Vict., c. 63, and Sale of Food and Drugs Act Amendment, 42 and 43 Vict., c. JO.

•^q Preamble of the Act ; Definition of " Food and Drup " . . 46 ?ie M^xinL ColourL^^ or Staining of Foods, and the Com- pounding of Drugs

33 34 34-37

37 37

40 41 41

42 42 43

43

co::rTENTS. xi

Section Page

40. The " Prejudice" question ia the Acts, 48

Regulations or Limits as to the Strength of Spirits, . . 49 Drugs to be sold only in Accordance -with the Demand of the

Purchaser No Offence if there is a Label Distinctly de- scribing the Article sold Abstraction from any Article of Food of any Constituent likely to impair its pi'operties, &c., 49

41. The Label Section Appeal Case of Liddiard v. Keece, , . 49 The Question of Completeness of Sale, ..... 50

42. Question as to how far Notices over Shop Doors, &c., protect a

Vendor, 51

43. Appointment and Qualifications of Analysts, .... 52

44. The Purchase of Samples by a Purchaser for Analysis, . . 54

45. The Procuring of Samples for Analj^sis by Medical OfEcers of

Health, &c., 55

Penalty for Refusal to Sell— The Case of Rouch v. Hall, . . 55

46. Method to be pursued by a Purchaser under the Act, . . 56

47. Regulations of the General Post Office relative to the Trans-

mission of Samples through the Post, .... 58

48. The Certificate of the Analyst The Institution of Proceediags Quarterly Reports of the Analyst— The Certificate of

the Analyst is Evidence, 59, 60

49. Provision for Analysis of the Sample at Somerset House— The Defendant may Prove by Written Warranty that he had

no Reason to believe the Article sold was any other than

Pure, &c., 60

Provision for Payment of Penalties The forging of Warranties The giving of False Labels— The Proceeding by Indict- ment—The Examination of Tea on Importation, . . 61

VII. THE DUTY OF THE INSPECTOE OR PUECHASER TJKDER THE ACT.

50. Giving full details as to the Duties of an Inspector under the

Act, 62-64

PART II.— INTRODUCTORY.

I. DESCRIPTIOK OP A PEW SPECIAL POEMS OP APPARATUS TJSEFITL IN FOOD

ANALYSIS.

51. Soxhlet's Fat-extracting Apparatus with Various Modifications, 67 Wynter Blyth's Ether Tube and " Ether Recovery" Apparatus, 68, 69

52. The Spiral Balance, 70

53. Vacuum Processes— The Mercury Pump, .... 71

II. THE MICROSCOPE, THE SPECTROSCOPE, AND THE ART OF PHOTOGRAPHY

AS APPLIED TO THE CHEMISTRY OF FOOD.

54. The best Form of Microscope— Manipulation of Tissues, . . 72-74

55. Ihe Micro-spectroscope, 74

The Sor by-Browning Micro-spectroscope— Measurement of

Bands, 74-78

The Hema-spectroscope of M. de Thierry, '. '. * 78-79

xii

CONTENTS,

Section Pago

56. Spark Spectra The method of L. de Boisbaudran, . . 79, 80 56a. The Tolarising Colorimeter The Colorimeter with the

Lumner-Brodhuns Prism, . . . .' ... 80-84 56&. Quantitative Spectroscopy Karl Vierordt's divided Slit The Extinction Coefficient The Absorption Spectrum of Permanganate, ........ 84-89

57. Photography Stein's Photographic Microscope Dr. Wood-

ward's Method, 90

58. Colour Mr. Sorby's Method of Examining Colouring-Matters, 91,92

59. Red Colouring-Matters Cochineal— Absorption Factors for Car-

minic Acid Aniline Reds Absorption Factors for Fuch- sine Safranine Coralline Aurine Ponceau Congo Eed Erythrosine Fast Red Biebrich Scarlet— Cioceine Scarlet Alkanet Madder Alizarine Purpurine Safflower Logwood Effect of Alum on Logwood Spec- trum—Brasiline— San talin— The Red Colouring -Matters of Fruits and Berries, 92-100

60. Orange and Yellow Colouring-Matters— The Annatto Colours

Turmeric— Picric Acid Fustic— Chrysophanic Acid Gamboge Aniline Oranges and Yellows Croceine Orange Rosorcin Yellow Diphenylamine Yellow Diphenylamine Orange— Chrysoidine— Methyl Orange— Metanil Yellow— Phosphine, 100-103

61. Green Colouring -Matters— Chlorophyll Group of Colours— "

Aldehyde Green— Iodine Green— Malachite Green, . . 104-106

62. Indigos and Violets Indigo— Indigotin— Litmus— Aniline

Blues— Methylene Blue— Aniline Blue— Methyl Violet- Alkali Blue, 106-108

63. Brown Colours— Bismarck Brown-— Acid Brown— Caramel, . 108, 109

64. Scheme for the Detection of the Aniline and other Colouring-

Matters by Chemical Reagents, 109-113

64a. Witt and Weingartner's Classification of Aniline Colours, - 113-117

The Mineral Matters or "Ash" of Food. Analysis of the Ash of Organic Substances.

65. The Percentage of Ash— Ash Soluble in Water— Ash Soluble

in Acid— Alkalinity of Ash— Percentage of Chlorine- Phosphoric Acid in the Ash, 117-119

66. General Method of Determining all the Constituents in an

Ash— Determination of Carbon Dioxide— Of Sulphuric and Phosphoric Acids— Bunge's Process for the Alkalies— Laucier's Method of Determining the Ash of Sugar, . 11 /-1-3 66a. Methods of Estimating Nitrogen and Nitrogenous Substances in Foods— Estimation of Total Nitrogen by Kjeldahls Method— Estimation of Nitrogen from Albumen— Esti- mation of non-Albuminoid Nitrogen— Estimation of Am- monia— Estimation of Amido-Acid and Amide Nitrogen, 123-12^

CONTENTS.

xiii

PART III. -CARBO-HYDRATES. Starchy and Saccharine Substances.'

Page

67. Classification of the Carbohydrates— I. The Grape Sugar

Group— II. The Cane Sugar Group— III. The Carbo- hydrates—Cane Sugar— Compounds of Inorganic Bases with Sugar 126-129

68. Adulterations of Sugar— The Detection of Dextrin— Of Starch

Sugar— Of Mineral Matters, 129-132

69. Full Analysis of Sugar— Methods of Taking the Ash of Sugar

Laugier's Method, 132-135

70. Glucose or Grape Sugar— How to obtain it— Properties, . 135, 136

71. Levulose, 136

Estimation of Sugar.

72. Estimation of Sugar— 1. Chemical Processes depending on

the Precipitation of Copper Suboxide— 2. Volumetric Processes by Aid of Solutions of Salts of Mercury— Knapp's Solution Sacchse's Solution, . . . . . 137, 138

73. Soxhlet's Researches on the Behaviour of Invert, M ilk-Sugar,

Galactose, and Maltose to Fehling's Solution The Cyanide Copper Process Dr. Pavy's Process— Physical Processes for the Determination of Sugar— MitscherUch's Polariscope— Soleil's Saccharimeter Jellett's and other Polarimeters, 139-150

Confectionery Sweetmeats.

74. Flavoiiring and Colouring-Matters of Sweetmeats Composi-

tion of Sweetmeats, ........ 150, 151

75. Analysis of Sweetmeats, 151, 152

Honey.

76. General Description of Honey Analyses of Honey Characters

of Pure Honey Adulterations of Honey Artificial Honey, 153-157

Treacle Molasses.

77. Composition and Analysis of Treacle, 157, 158

Jam and Preserved Fruits.

78. General Composition of Jam, 158, 159

79. Microscopical Structure of Apples, Pears, Damsons, Plums,

Oranges, and Lemons, the Strawberry, Raspberry, Goose- berry, Blackberry, and the Currant, . . . .159-162 Saccharin 163

Starch.

*

80. Starch, its Composition— Method of Estimation, . . . 163-169 Microscopical Identification of Starches, . . . . 170, 171 Division of Starches, 171-176

Xlv CONTENTS,

Section p^^^

81. Vogel's Division of the Starches, 176, 177

Karmarsch and Wiesner's Values, 177, 178

Bibliography relative to the Starches, . , . . 178

Wheat Wheaten Flour.

82. Varieties and Composition of Wheat, 179

S3. Constituents of Flour, 179-186

Analysis of Flour.

84. Microscopical Examination of Flour, 186

,, Structure of Corn-coclde, 187

Detection of Ergot in Flour, 189

,, Potato Starch, . . . . . . , 190

,, Leguminous Starches in Flour, .... 191

85. ,, Alum and Mineral Matters generally in Flour, . 193-196

86. Proximate Analysis of Flour, 196-198

87. Legal case relative to Flour, 198

Beead.

88. Definition of Bread The Proce ss of Making Bread, . . 199 General Composition of Bread, ...... 199, 200

Alteration of Bread by Moulds. &c., 201, 202

89. Adulterations of Bread, 202

90. Alum in Bread Its Influence on Health : Methods for its

Estimation, 203-207

Bibliography relative to Flour and Bread, .... 208, 209

91. Infants' Farinaceous Foods, 209, 210

Oats Oatmeal.

92. Composition of the Oat Oatmeal Adulteration of Oatmeal, 210, 211

Barley.

93. Barley— Barley Bread, 212, 213

Rye.

94. Composition of Rye Flour— Rye Bread, 213, 214

Rice.

95. Composition of Rice— The Ash of Rice, 214, 215

Maize.

96. Composition of Maize— Ash of Maize, 216, 217

Millet.

97. Composition of Millet— Asli of Millet, 217

Potato.

98. Composition of the Potato The Fungus Producmg the

Potato Disease— Analysis of the Potato,. . . . 218-221

CONTENTS.

XV

Peas.

Page

99 General Composition of Peas-Analysis of Peas, . . . 222-224 lOo'. Preserved Peas-Copper in Peas— Discussion as to Poisonous Effects of Coppered Peas,

Chinese Peas.

101. Composition of Chinese Peas, 227

Lentils.

102. Composition of Lentils, 22S

Beans.

103. Composition of the Kidney and the Broad Bean, . . . 228, 220

PART IV. -MILK, CREAM, BUTTER, CHEESE.

MILK.

Historical Introduction.

104. Early Ideas as to the Composition of Milk : Aristotle— Avi-

cenna—Placitus—Panthaleon—Bartoletus— Bartholomew Martin Ludovico Testi Leeuwenhoek, . . . 230, 231

105. Boerhaave's Views on Milk, 231-233

106. Early Quantitative Analyses of Geoffroy and Doorschodt, . 233, 234

107. The Experiments of VuUyanoz as to Milk-Sugar, ... 234

108. The Investigations of Voltelenus on Milk, .... 234, 235

109. The Experiments of Schoepff, Scheele, Hoffman, and Caspar

Neumann, 235, 23&

The Composition of Cow's Milk.

\10. The General Physical Properties of Milk, .... 236-238

111. The Amphioteric Reaction of Milk, 238

112. Total Solids of Milk, ........ 238, 239

113. Milk-Fat, . 239

114. Chemical and Physical Properties of Palmitin, Stearin, Olein,

and other Constituents of Milk-Fat, .... 239-242

115. The Albuminoids of Milk 242-245

116. Milk-Sugar, 245, 246

117. Mineral Constituents of Milk, 246, 247

118. Other Constituents of Milk Lacto-Proteine, Galactin,

Lacto-chrome, 247, 248

119. Bitter Principles in Milk— Kreatinine 248, 249

120. Odorous Principle in Milk, . . . . . 249, 250

121. Summary of the General Constituents of Milk, . . . 250

xvi

CONTENTS.

Gases of Milk.

■Section Page

122. The Author's Investigation of the Gases of Milk, . . . 251-253

"Fore" Milk.

123. "Fore" Milk— Fractional Milking 253, 254

HuMAK Milk.

124. Composition of Human Milk, 255, 256

Milk of other Mammals : Lactescent Peoducts of Birds and

Plants.

125. Milk of the Ass, 256, 257

126. Goat, 257, 258

127. ,, Mare, 258

128. ,, Sheep, . . 259

129. Camel 259

130. ,, Llama, 259

131. ,, Hippopotamus, 259, 260

132. Sow, 260

133. Bitch, 260

134. Cat, 261

135. Milk-like Secretions of Birds and Plants, .... 261

Abnormal Milks.

136. Abnormal Lacteal Secretions of Men and Animals General

Examination and Analysis of Milk, 263, 264

137. Classification of Processes for Milk Analysis, . . 264, 265

I. Microscopical and Biological Examination of Milk.

138. Microscopical Appearances of Milk Bacteriology of Milk, . 265-267

II. Analytical Processes more particularly for the Purposes of the Food Analyst.

139. Early Processes of Milk Analysis, 267, 268

A. General Analysis of Milk.

140. Specific Gravity— Total Solids— Extraction of Milk -Fat-

Extraction of Milk-Sugar, Albuminoids, and Ash, . . 268, 269

B. Various Methods Proposed for Extracting the Milk-Fat. Solvents for Fat— Addition of Sand— Adams' Method— Esti- mation by Centrifugal Machines— Soxhlet's Process— The Werner-Schmidt Method of Fat Estimation, . . . 269-275

C. Various other Methods of Milk Analysis. 141 Drying in a Vacuum— Direct Determination of the Water- Absorption of the Water by Dehydrating Agents llitthausen's Copper Process— Muller's Process— Claus- nizer and A. Mayer's Process— Summary, . . . 275-280

CONTENTS. XVU

III. Special Details as to the more Exhaustive and Scientific

Analysis of Milk.

Section , , , i

142. Analysis of the Milk-Fat and Examination of the Ethereal

Extract of Milk, 280, 281

14.3. Detection and Estimation of the Carbo-hydrates of Milk, . 281, 286

144. Estimation of the Ash of Milk, 286

145. Albumen, 287, 288

146. Isolation of Galactin— Estimation of the Total Nitrogen in

Milk, 288

147. Isolation of the Principles precipitated by Tannin, . . 288

148. Estimation of Urea, 289

149. Alcohol, 289, 290

150. the Volatile Acids, 290

151. the Total Acidity of Milk, . . . .290,291

152. Detection of Metals in Milk, 291, 292

Nitrates in Milk, ...... 292

The Milk Secreted by the Unhealthy.

153. The Chemical Characters of Diseased Milk are not markedly

different from Healthy Milk, 292, 293

I, HUMAN MILK.

154. Some Analyses of Human Milk derived from Persons in Ill-

Health, 293

II. cow's MILK.

155. Milk from Cows suffering from Aphthous Fever, Mammitis,

Parturient Apoplexy, Pneumonia, Engorgement of Rumen,

&c. , Phthisis, and Local Affections of the Udder, . . 294-298

156. Milk of Cows suffering from Typhus 298

157. The Propagation of Disease through Milk, .... 298 The Relation of Milk to Scarlatina 298-300

,, ,, Phthisis and Tubercular Maladies, . 300-303

The Communication of Aphthous Fever by Milk, . . . 303, 304 A new Form of Febrile Disease associated with Milk, . , 304, 305

Decomposition op Milk.

158. Lactic and other Fermentations of Milk— Tyrotoxicon, . 305, 306

159. Blue Milk, 306, 307

Adulteration of Milk.

160. General View of the Adulterations of Milk, .... 307 Calculations relative to the Water in Milk, .... 308, 309

161. Method of Calculating the Removal of Cream— The Addition

of Cane-Sugar to Milk, 309-311

161a. The Adulteration of Fresh Milk with Condensed Milk, . 311

162. Mineral Adulterants of Milk— Boracic Acid or Borax in Milk

Quantitative Estimation of Boric Acid— Formaldehyde in Milk— The Addition of Glycerin, Salicylic Acid, &c., 311-316

b

iviii

CONTENTS.

Preservation of Milk.

Section _ _ PftRo

163. The Principles of Preserving Milk, .... 317

164. Evaporating Processes, various Patents, .... 317, 318

165. The Preservation of Milk b}' various Additions, such as

Sugar, &c., 318, 319

166. Action of Cold on Milk, 319, :«0

167. Heating and then Cooling Milk, as a Method of Preservation, 320

Influence of Food our the Quality and Quantity of Milk.

168. The Experiments of Weiske, Dumas, Beusch, Boussingault,

Payen, Liebig, Fleischmann, and Struckmann on Feeding Animals, and the Influence of Food on the Produce of

Milk, 320-324

109. Contamination of the Milk by Poisonous Colouring or Bitter Principles consumed by the Cow The Iniiuence of Pas- tures manured with Sewage 324, 325

170. Metals in Milk, 325, 326

The Quantity of Milk given by the Cow, the Method OF Feeding, &c.

171. The Capacity of the Udder for Milk 326

172. Relative Value of various Breeds of Cattle as Milk-Producers, 326, 327

173. The Feeding of Milking Cows, 327, 328

Cream.

174. Composition of Devonshire Cream, of Ordinary Cream, Arti-

ficial Cream, 328-330

Skim -Milk.

175. Composition of Skim-Milk, 331

Condensed Milk.

176. Composition of various Skim-Milks— Condensed Milks, . 331-333

Koumiss.

177. Preparation and Composition of Koumiss, .... 333

Legal Cases Relative to Milk.

178. Defence that Milk had been deprived of Cream by Uninten-

tional Skimming— The Manufacture of Condensed Milk Novel Defence— Adulteration of Milk with Cane-Sugar and Water— Defence that the Milk was Watered by the Rain— Conviction for selling "Fore" Milk— Conviction

for selling Diseased Milk, 334-337

Bibliography relative to Milk, 337-339

Butter.

179. Constituents of Butter 340-341

Oleo-Margarine— Butterine.

180. Manufacture and Composition of Butterine, .... 341-343

,1..,^ «. ./viw^ic

CONTENTS.

XIX

Analysis anb Adultebation of Butter.

Section 181. 182. 183. 184.

The Adultercations and General Analysis of Butter,

Certain simple Tests,

Cohesion Figures— Empirical Tests for Butter, . Methods of taking the Melting-Point and Specific Gravity ot

Butter,

Disc Method of taking Melting Points, The Titer Test, . . . , ^ ..

Application of the Refractometer to the Testing of Butter

Fat, ^

The Oleo-Refractometer of MM. Amagat and Jean,

Specific Gravity,

The Viscometry of Butter,

185. Direct Titration of Butter-Fat by Koettstorfer's Method,

186. Decomposition of Butter-Fat into Fatty Acids and Glycerin

Reichert-Meissl's Process, , ' o i

The Process of Mr. West-Knight— Saponification by Sul

phuric Acid— Wm. Johnstone's Process— Further Analysis

of the Insoluble Fatty Acids, . The Estimation of Butyric Ether, . Estimation of Glycerin, ....

Hubl's Iodine Method,

The Cryoscopic Method of examining Butter-Fat,

Summary,

Legal Case relative to Butter, Bibliography relative to Butter, .

Page 343-34(> 346-348 348-350

351, 352 352-354 354

354-357 .358 359, 3R0 360 361, 362 362-364 365-367

367-370 371 371 372-374 374-376 376

376, 377

377, 378

Buttermilk. 187. Composition of Buttermilk, .

378

Cheese.

188. The Principles of the Manufacture of Cheese, . . . 379

189. Neufchatel Cheese— Fromage de Brie— English Cream Cheese

Camembert— Roquefort Cheese— American, Cheddar, Dunlop, Gloucester, Stilton, Gruyere, Gorgonzola, Skim Cheeses, 379, 380

190. Parmesan Cheese, 381

191. The Ripening of Cheese, 381-3S3

192. Analysis of Cheese— Adulterations of Cheese, - . . 383

Arsenic in the Rind of Cheese, 385

Tyiotoxicon, ........*' 38d

Whey 385

Bibliography relative to Cheese, .... . . 3S6

Lard.

192a. Varieties of Lards, 386, 387

1926. Physical Characteristics of Lard, ..... 387

192c. Chemical Characteristics of Lard, ..... 3SS-390 192rf, Adulteration of Lard— Chemical Constants— Special Tests for Vegetable Oils— Detection of Beef Stearin— Larderine

—Bibliography, 390-394

CONTENTS.

PART v.— TEA, COFFEE, COCOA.

I. TEA.

Section p._»

193. Varieties of Tea, 395

194. Structure of the Tea Leaf ". '. ! 395, 396

195. Chemical Composition of Tea 397-400

Theine or Caffeine, Boheic Acid, Quercitannic Acid, Quercetin, 400, 401

Composition of Tea.

195. General Analysis of Tea— Konig's, Dragendorff 's, and Mulder's

Analyses of Tea— Preliminary Examination of Tea, . . 401-403

Microscopical Methods of Detecting Adulterations in Tea.

197. New Process for the Examination of Leaves and Vegetable

Tissues generally under the Microscope Permanganate Process— Skeleton Ashes,

198. Chemical Method for Detection of Foreign Leaves in Tea

The Detection of Facing,

403, 404 404-40G

Leaves Used, or Supposed to be Used, as Adulterants of Tea. 199. Micro-structure of the Beech Leaf, Hawthorn, Camellia

Sassanqua, Sloe, Ghloranthus Inconspicuus,

407-411

Chemical Analysis of Tea.

200. Hygroscopic Moisture of the Tea Leaf,

201. The Estimation of Theine or Caffeine,

202. Determination of Total Nitrogen, .

203. Tannin, .

204. The Extract of Tea,

205. The Ash of Tea, ....

206. Determination of Gum, .

207. General Review of the Adulterations of Tea,

208. Bohemian Tea,

Bibliography relative to Tea and Theine,

411, 412 412-414 414 415-418

418- 419

419- 422 422

422, 423

423, 424 424

Matk.

209. Manufacture, Description, and Analysis of Mat^— Analysis of Ilex Paraguayends,

425-427

IL COFFEE.

210. Description of the Coffee Berry Microscopical Structure, . 428, 429

211. Cbemical Changes during Roasting, 429, 430

212. Constituents of Coffee, 4.30-433

213. Analysis of Coffee, 433-435

Adulterations of Coffee and their Detection.

214. The Adulteration of Coffee with Chicory Its Detection

Microscopical Detection of Adulterations in Coffee Vegetable Ivory Date Stones Leguminous Seeds, . 435-440

CONTENTS.

xxi

Section

215. The Adulteration of Coffee with the Seeds of Cassia, . Composition and Analysis of " Date " Coffee,

216. Estimation of Chicory in CofiFee, .....

217. The Methods of Hiepe, Prunier, Hager, and others for detect

ing Adulterations in Coffee,

Bibliography relative to Coflfee,

Page 441 442 442-445

446 447, 448

III. COCOA ANB CHOCOLATE.

218. Microscopical Structure of the Seed, 448

219. Varieties of Cocoa, , . 459

220. Chocolate, 45O

221. Average Chemical Composition of Cocoa— Cocoa Butter—

Bjorklund's Test— Hager's Aniline Test, . . . .451, 452

222. Composition, Effects, and Estimation of Theobromin, . . 452-455 222a. Cocoa Bed— Zipperer's Method of Determining Cocoa Red

and the Products of its Decomposition, . \ . . 455-457 2226. Determination of Crude Fibre, 457

223. The Ash— Mineral Constituents of Cocoa— Bensemann's An-

00. ^^.alyses of Cocoa, 457-462

224. Nitrogenous Constituents of Cocoa, 463

225. Adulterations of Cocoa, [ * 453

226. Adulterations of Chocolate, ....... 464

Bibhography relative to Cocoa and Chocolate, . . ', 464, 465

PART VI.-ALCOHOL, SPIRITS, LIQUEURS, FERMENTED LIQUORS AND WINE.

ALCOHOL.

227. Alcohol— Ethylic Alcohol, .

228. Rectified Spirit— Proof Spirit, Specific Gravity Table, .

229. Tests for Alcohol, ....'.[

230. Separation of Alcohol from Animal Matters, '

. 466, 467 467 . 468-470 . 470-472 •. 472, 473

Estimation or Alcohol in Spirits and Alcoholic Liquids.

231. Various Methods for the Estimation of Alcohol— Methods

used in the Examination of Alcohols in the Municipal Laboratory, Paris, 473 475

232. Estimation of Alcohol by Distillation— Tabarie's Method-^

o-i'i AT ^V y^PO^™eter— Oxidation into Acetic Acid, . 476-479

233. Methylic Alcohol, Tests for, and Estimation of— Formic Acid

EtheJr*^ of Alcohols-Aldehydes-Furfurol— Acetone—

234. The Higher Alcohols, B'ardy's Method— Bases, '. 483-488

Brandy.

235. Composition and Adulterations of Brandy, .... 489

236. Composition and Analysis of Rum, 490, 491

xxii

CONTENTS.

Whisky.

Section Page

237. Composition and Adulteration of Whisky, . . . .491, 492

238. Effects of the Higher Alcohols, 492

239. Prosecutions for Adulterated Whisky, 492, 493

Gin.

240. Composition of Gin, 493

241. Oil of Calamus, 493

242. Oil of Cardamoms, 493, 494

243. Angelica Root and its Active Constituents, .... 494

244. Oil of Coriander, 494, 495

245. Oil of Juniper, 495

246. Analysis of Gin, 495, 496

Arrack.

247. Composition of Arrack 496, 497

LIQUEURS OR CORDIALS.

248. Composition of Cordials or Liqueurs, 497

Absinthe.

249. Composition, Adulterations, and Effects of Absinthe, . . 497, 498

FERMENTATION— FERMENTED LIQUORS.

250. General Principles of Fermentation, ..... 499, 500

251. Yeast, 500-502

252. Lactic Acid and other Ferments, 502, 503

Beer.

253. Enumeration of the various kinds of Beer Their Composi-

tion, 503-505

254. The Water used by the Brewer, 505, 506

255. Malt Extract, 506-508

256. The Colouring-Matters of Malt, 508, 509

257. Beer Bitters, 509, 510

258. Hops, 510-514

259. Absynthin, 514

260. Aloin, 514, 515

261. Cnicin, 515

262. Daphnin, 515, 516

263. Gentianin, .......... 516

264. Gentiopicrin, 516, 517

265. Menyanthin, 517

266. Quassiin, 517, 518

267. The Ash of Beer, 518

268. Analysis of Beer, 518

Specific Gravity of Malt Extract, 522-525

Spirit Indication Tables, 526-528

Hop Resin and Glycerin, 531

The Nature of the Bitter used 532

Dragendorff's Process 532-536

CONTENTS.

xxiii

Page

Section

269. Adams' Process for Separating Hop Bitter— Processes to be

Used for the Separation of Picrotoxin and other Matters, 536-53S

270. Special Tests for Picric Acid, . 538 539

271. Spectral Analysis of Beer, .... Salicylic Acid, ......

272. Ash of Beer Determination of Salt in Beer,

273. Adulteration of Beer with Sugar, . Bibliography relative to Beer,

539, 540 540

540-543 543 544

274. 275. 276. 277.

278.

278a 279. 280. 281.

281a 282. 283.

284.

Wine.

Constituents of Wine,

Changes taking place in Wine through Age, ....

Adulterations of Wine,

Analysis of Wine— Dupre's Analyses of Wines— Schmidt's Analyses of high-priced Wines Physical Characters, Constituents Volatile below 100° C, . . . . Volatile Acids Estimation of free Sulphurous Acid and of

Aldehyde Sulphurous Acid,

. Estimation of Esters in Wine,

Extract or solid Residue,

Estimation of Succinic Acid and Glycerin, .... Estimation of Tartaric Acid, and Glycerin, and Bitartrate of

Potash,

Estimation of Malic Acid,

, Astringent Matters,

Estimation of Colouring-Matters in Wine, . . . . Absorption Bands of the Colouring-Matters of Wine, '.

Gatjtier's Process tor Detecting Foreign Colouring- Matters IN Wine.

Preliminary Preparation of the Sample, and Table A, . Table B Systematic Process,

545 546 546-, 547

547-553

553-555 556, 557

557-561 561, 562

562-564 563 564

564-569 569

570 570-575

Special Reactions eor the Detection oe Certain of the Colouring-Matters mixed with Wines.

Brazil Wood,

Logwood, Cochineal, Fuchsine, Portugal Berries, HoUvhock'

575

285. 286.

Beetroot, Elder, Privet, Whortleberries, Indigo, Mineral Substances or Ash of Wine, Detection of Pluoborates and Fluosilicates, .* Bibliography relative to Wine, ....

576-578 578, 579 579 580

PART VII.— VINEGAR.

287. Constituents of Commercial Vinegar. . nRi

288. Adulterations, . . . ' . .* ' * 532

289. Analysis of Vinegar, 582-588 Bibliography relative to Vinegar, . '. '. * \ \ 539

xxiv

CONTENTS.

Lemon Juice and Lime Juice.

Section Paa^o

290. Constituents of Lemon and Lime Juice, .... 599

291. Adulterations of Lime Juice, 590, 591

292. Analysis of Lime Juice, 591,592

PART VIIL— CONDIMENTS : MUSTAED, PEPPER, &c.

MUSTAED.

293. Varieties of Mustard Microscopical Structure of the Seed, . 593-59G

294. Analysis of Mustard 596

295. The Chemistry of Mustard, 596-598

296. The Fixed and Volatile Oil of Mustard, .... 598, 599

297. Adulterations of Mustard, 599-601

Pepper.

298. Varieties and General Composition of Pepper, . . . 603 Microscopical Structure of Pepper, 604-606

299. Piperin— Piperidin— Piperic Acid, 606, 607

300. The Ash of Pepper— Nitrates and Nitrites in Pepper, . . 607, 608

301. General Composition of Pepper, 608

302. Analysis of Pepper, 609

303. Adulterations of Pepper, 609

Olive-Stones Poivrette, 610

Legal Case relative to Pepper, 612

Bibliography, 612-614

Cayenne Pepper.

304. General Description of Cayenne, 614

305. Capsaicin and other Principles of Pepper, . . . .615,616

306. Adulterations of Cayenne Pepper, 616, 617

The Sweet and Bitter Almond.

307. General Description of Almonds, 617

308. Oil of Almonds, 617, 618

309. Amygdaline— Volatile Oil or Essence of Almonds, . . 618-620

Annatto.

310. General Characters of Annatto, 621

311. Chemical Composition of Annatto, 621,622

312. Adulterations of Annatto, 622

313. Analysis of Annatto, 623

Olive Oil.

314. General Description of Olive Oil, 623-625

315. Adulterations of Olive Oil— Refraction of Olive Oil— Tests for

Arachis, Sesam^, Cotton Seed, Rape, and Poppy Seed Oils, 625-623

CONTENTS.

XXV

PART IX.— WATER.

Section

316. Introduction,

Page 629

I. EXAMINATION BY THE SENSES.

317. Colour— Smell— Taste, 629-631

II. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION.

318. Spectrum of Water, &c., 631

III. CHEMICAL METHODS.

A. Preliminary Qualitative Chemical Examination. Detection of Nitrites and Nitrates, 631-633^

633 634 635.

B. Quantitative Analysis.

319. 1. Total Solid Residue,

2. Estimation of the Halogens,

3. Phosphates,

4. Estimation of Nitrates and Nitrites (1) Colorimetric Methods— (a.) The Brucine Method; (&.) The Diphenyl- amine Method ; (c.) The Carbazol Test; {d.) Phenol and Resorcinol. (2.) Estimation as Ammonia The Copper- Zinc Couple The Aluminium Process Ulsch's Method of Estimating Nitric Acid by Reduction to Ammonia. (3.) Estimation of Nitrates and Nitrites as Nitric Oxide Crum Process. (4.) Indigo Process. (5.) Ulsch's Method of Estimating Nitric Acid by Measuring the Deficiency

of Hydrogen evolved on Reduction, 636-64ff

5. Estimation of the Dissolved Oxygen in Water, . . 646-650

6. Sulphates, 65a

7. The Forchammer, Oxygen Process, 650-654r

8. Ammonia, Free and Albuminoid, 654-656

9. Hardness, 656

10. Alkalinity, 657

11. Organic Analysis of Water, 657

Frankland's Combustion Process, 657

Blair's Method of Moist Combustion, .... 664, 665 The Author's Method of Moist Combustion, . . . 665-667 Gravimetric Estimation of Minute Quantities of Carbon, 667-670

IV. BIOLOGICAL METHODS.

319a, Estimation of Organic Nitrogen after Kjeldahl's Method, . 670, 671 Mmeral Analysis of Water, 671, 672

320, Microscopical Appearances 672

The Sedgwick-Rafter Method, 672

Mr. Dibdia's Process, 673

a. LIFELESS FORMS.

Mineral Matters Vegetable Matters— Dead Animal Matters Haman Debris, Manufactured Matters,

676

xxvi

CONTKNTS,

b. LIVING FORMS.

Section Pa