THE

TRANSACTIONS THE LINNEAN SOCIETY

LONDON.

VOLUME XV. ©

LONDON:

PRINTED BY RICHARD TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET:

SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S HOUSE, SOHO-SQUARE ; AND BY LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN, PATERNOSTER-ROW; AND WILLIAM WOOD, STRAND. :

——— MDCCCXXVII.

MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN.

THE

TRANSACTIONS

OF

THE LINNEAN SOCIETY

OF

-—- LONDON.

VOLUME XV. PART THE FIRST.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY RICHARD TAYLOR, SHOE LANE: SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S HOUSE, SOHO-SQUARE;

AND BY LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN, PATERNOSTER-ROW ; AND WILLIAM WOOD, STRAND.

MDCCCXXVI.

(, iit’ >)

II.

IIT.

© OLN EEN TS

PART Ts

A Cararocus of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds; with Remarks. By the Rev. Revett Sheppard, A.M. F.L.S. and the Rev. William Whitear, A.M. F.L.S. p.

On the Structure of the Tarsus in the Tetramerous and Trimerous Coleoptera of the French Entomologists. By W. S. MacLeay, Esq. A.M. F.L.S. Communicated by the Zoological Club of the Linnean Society - p.

Notice on a peculiar Property of a Species of Echinus. By E. T. Bennett, Esq. F.L.S. Communicated by the Zoological Club of the Linnean Society - - p.

. A Commentary on the Third Part of the Hortus Mala-

baricus. By Francis Hamilton, M.D. F.R.S. and ELS. 9 ne e

Observations on the Crepitaculum and the Foramina in the anterior Tibia of some Orthopterous Insects. By the Rev. Lansdown Guilding, B.A. F.L.S. fees

VL

. 63 : 74 78

153

iv P CONTENTS.

VI. Description of the Plectrophanes Lapponica ; a Spe- X cies lately discovered in the British Islands. By Pri-

deaux John Selby, Esq. F. L.S. Communicated by the -

Zoological Club of the Linnean Society - - p.

VII. Description of a new Genus of the Class Mammalia, from the Himalaya Chain of Hills between Nepaul and the Snowy Mountains. By Major-General Hardwicke, ERXGMELS 2 ww u 4 p.

VIII. Description of two new Birds from N epaul. By Major- General Hardwicke, F.R.S. and F.L.S.

IX. A Description of the Australian Birds in the Collection of the Linnean Society ; with an Attempt at Arranging them according to their natural Affinities. By N. A. Vigors, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. F.L.S. and F.G.S., and Thomas Horsfield, M.D., F.L.S. and F.G.S. Communicated by the Zoological Club of the Linnean Society p.

X. Notice of a Species of Ursus from Nepaul. By Thomas Horsfield, M.D. F.L.S. nc. à

156

161

166

170

332

TRANS-

TRANSACTIONS.

OF

THE LINNEAN SOCIETY.

I. A Catalogue of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds; with Remarks. By the Rev. Revett Sheppard, A.M. F.L.S. and the Rev. Wil- lian Whitear, A. M. F.L.S.

+

Read April 20, 1824, and May 3, 1825.

THE proximity of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk to the northern part of the Continent, affords an opportunity to many migrative species of birds to visit these parts of the kingdom, in their passage to and from their breeding haunts. The abundance of food which the sea-coasts, rivers, and marshes supply to the waders and web-footed birds forms an attraction to these tribes. Hence this district is particularly favourable to the pursuits of ornithologists. The following paper has been drawn up with a view to facilitate such pursuits, and to illustrate the history of several species of birds. Its object will be sufficiently answered if this end shall be in any degree accomplished ; and, at the same time, some light thrown upon the wisdom and goodness of the Author of Nature in the works of his creation.

The classification and names adopted are those of the second edition of Temminck’s Manuel d'Ornithologie, a work which

VOL. XV. B evinces

2 Messrs. Snerpa and Wuirear’s Catalogue

evinces in its author a more extensive and accurate acquaint- ance with the birds of Europe, than any other that has been hitherto published.

Genus I. Farco. 1. F. Islandicus (Jerfalcon).

Several years since, a beautiful specimen of the Jerfalcon was shot on Bungay common ; and being only slightly wounded in the pinion, it lived for some time in the possession of John Cooper, Esq. of that place. | |

2. F. peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon).

. Mr. Hoy, of Higham in Suffolk, trapped two of these birds, and has seen others at that place. He catches them by fastening baited steel traps, covered with moss, on the top of a high tree, upon which he has observed them to be fond of perching.

The Peregrine Falcon visits the warren at Beechamwell, on the estate of John Motteux, Esq., in autumn, and continues there during the winter. A pair of these birds bred many years successively in the cliffs at Hunstanton in N orfolk, though con- stantly deprived of their young, which were taken and trained to falconry by Mr. Downes of Gunton: but during the three last years they have ceased to build there. |

3. F. Subbuteo (Hobby). 4. F. Æsalon (Merlin).

5. F. Tinnunculus (Kestril, Wind-hover, Hover Hawk).

The stomach of a Kestril killed late in the year was filled with grubs. * | Loc | . The Rev. Joseph Harrison has employed with success the fol- lowing method of taking the Kestril.—A White napkin was

Spread |

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. .8

spread in a meadow, and fastened at the corners with little hooked sticks. On the middle of the napkin a live sparrow was fixed by means of a string three or four inches in length. Slender twigs were stuck up on both sides the cloth, to prevent the Hawk from attacking the sparrow on either side. "Two long«slender twigs of weeping-willow, well covered with birdlime, were stuck in the ground, one at each end of the napkin, both forming an arch over the bird, but at such a distance that the sparrow could not touch them with its wings whilst fluttering ; neither could any Hawk reach the sparrow without coming in contact with the limed twigs. The intention of the white cloth was to attract the attention of the Hawk at a greater distance to the sparrow fluttering upon it. "The limed twigs were stuck so slightly in the ground, that if the Hawk, upon finding himself entangled, should struggle, they would have gone off with him and prevented his flight. Mr. H. observes, that twigs covered with birdlime, when long and slender, will stop the-flight of the strongest bird, if fixed so as to pass off with him, when touched by his plumage; for they then become like a chain binding the wings to the body. By these twigs he has caught the Cuckoo, Pigeon, &c., and has no doubt but that the Eagle, and every bird of prey, might be taken by them when their nests or haunts are discovered.

The disposition of the Kestril is bold and familiar. Imme- diately upon the capture of one by the above method, Mr. Har- rison placed him upon a table, and gave him the sparrow which he had killed when taken: he plucked and ate it in his pre- sence, showing no more dread than if he had been brought up tame. After capturing three of these birds, Mr. H. made no further attempts upon them, as he considers them to be of great benefit to the farmer, and doing very little injury to the "pare

man. B 2 A Hawk

4 Messrs. SugePARD and WurrEAR's Catalogue

A Hawk of this kind was observed to dart upon a weasel, and immediately to mount aloft with it in his talons; but had not proceeded far before both fell from a considerable height: the weasel ran off; but the Kestril, upon examination, was found to have been killed by a bite in the throat.

6. F. fulvus (Golden Eagle).

An account of a bird of this species, killed in Suffolk, may be seen in Pennant's British Zoology, edit. 1812.

7. F. Haliaétus (Osprey). .

The Osprey has been met with in the neighbourhood of rivers and large pieces of water, both in Norfolk and Suffolk. A very fine specimen, which we saw in the possession of Mr. Crickmore of Beccles, had a beautiful bronze gloss upon the upper parts of its plumage.

8. F. Albicilla (Sea Eagle).

Some years since a Sea Eagle was met with in the western part of Norfolk, and being only slightly wounded with a gun was with difficulty overpowered. It afterwards lived sixteen years in the possession of the late Henry Styleman, Esq. of Snettisham, at whose house we saw it in full vigour in the year 1818. Another bird of the same species in full plumage, killed in Norfolk a few years ago, was sent to Mr. Hunt of Norwich. In its young state, —the Sea-Eagle of most English Ec has been frequently shot both in Norfolk and Suf- folk. |

À young one, which is kept by the Rev. Joseph Harrison of Great Oakley in Essex, and is very familiar with him, and which he procured when about ten weeks old from Sweden, sounds an alarm upon the approach of any strangers, and will fly violently

to

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 5

to attack them if they approach too near: he has, however, a little of the coward about him, as this is generally done when their backs are towards him. We saw his manner of devouring a large puppy. He ate the whole of the head, and then from the neck picked out the remainder of the bones and flesh, dex- terously turning the skin inside out as he proceeded. His note at first a good deal resembled that of the Raven ; at present it is more like that of the Great black-backed Gull.

9. F. Nisus (Sparrow-Hawk).

We have been favoured by Mr. Harrison with the following observations upon this species.—** This bird may be taken in a similar manner to that described for taking the Kestril,—by limed twigs and a sparrow. His disposition, however, appears much more shy and fearful of the human species than that of the other. I made an experiment to tame one last summer. He was brought to me whilst very young, and every possible care was taken to gain his attachment; but this proved of no avail: he was fierce, savage and fearful, and without any attachment to those who fed him. His wing was cut, to prevent him from preying upon living birds. When oppressed with hunger he would come upon my arm, if I approached him and showed him either bird, mouse, or flesh of any kind, but would not long remain unless he had something given him. He had a stand in the garden, where he was iciülisbs fed whilst young ; but when he became capable of flying to a distance, he would not remain there to eat what was placed upon it, unless it was fastened by a string or wire; and even then he would leave it on the ap- pearance of any of the domestics who had been in the habit of feeding him, or of any animal. When I gently approached him myself, at the same time calling to him, he would sometimes remain. His favourite abode was in a meadow near the house,

perched

6 Messrs. Surpparp and WurrEAn's Catalogue

perched on a rail by the side of a brook, where he would sit almost from morning to night, calling to me at all times when I : made my appearance.

** ] found, after two months' experience, that no discipline or attention could gain his affections. Both this bird and the Kestril seem fond of washing themselves in hot weather, and of basking and rubbing themselves in dust and ashes."

10. F. Milvus (Kite). 11. F. Buteo (Buzzard).

12. F. lagopus (Rough-legged Falcon).

We are informed by Mr. Scales of Beechamwell, near Swaft- ham, that this bird annually visits the warren at that place about the month of November, and continues there for some time in quest of rabbits. A fine bird of this species, which Mr. S. kept alive many months, is now preserved in the British Museum. Not long since, a pair of Rough-legged Falcons were killed at Holkham ; and we have heard of one which was shot at Butley in Suffolk. jc fram Sui 13. F. apivorus (Honey Buzzard). -

A dark-coloured specimen of this bird was killed near Yar- mouth, and is now in the beautiful and extensive collection of British birds belonging to J oseph Sabine, Esq. 3

14. F. rufus (Moor Buzzard).

_ These birds breed in some of the marshes of Norfolk. They devour the eggs of wild ducks which frequent the same places, and have been caught in steel traps baited with a duck’s egg.

15. F. cy-

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. T

15. F. cyaneus (Henharrier).

This bird breeds in the channel-fen at Barton in Norfolk, where we have more than once thought ourselves in danger of being attacked by it, when we had approached the place where undoubtedly its nest was concealed.

| Genus II. Srrix. L.S. Nota (Snowy Owl).

A female Snowy Owl was shot at Felbrigg in Norfolk the first week in April 1814, the weight of which was 51 pounds ; length 2 feet; breadth 5 feet 4 inches. This is the first instance we have heard of the Snowy Owl being seen in England. In the month of January 1820 another specimen of the same bird was killed near Gunton, not many miles distant from the spot where the former one was found. "The latter bird is now in the pos- session of Lord Suffield.

2. S. Aluco (Brown Owl). 3. S. flammea (White Owl).

This bird, as well as others of the genus, is destructive among rabbits, as we have been informed by a relative, who has shot it in the very act of striking them on a warren; and we have our- selves frequently seen White Owls skimming over the burrows.

4. S. brachyotos (Short-eared Owl).

These Owls visit this part of the kingdom i in September and October, and remain till the spring. They arrive in flocks of from ten to twenty, and frequent heaths ; in which respect they differ from the Long-eared species, which is fond of the gloom of fir- plantations. Montagu says, that the ears in a dead specimen are not discoverable ; but in one which we have seen, the ears

| remained

8 Messrs. SHEPPARD and WHITEAR’S Catalogue

remained distinct from the rest of the plumage after the bird was killed,—dead or alive there was no difference.

5. S. Otus (Long-eared Owl).

À pair of Long-eared Owls bred a few years since in Staven- der-park near Orford. There were five young ones in the nest, one of which was kept alive for four years. It is said to be common near Beccles, and to breed in that neighbourhood. A female of this. species, which we killed on the 13th of March, was not so beautiful as a male killed the beginning of the same month. We have seen seven of these birds together, and on being disturbed they would take their flight high in the air, where they resembled Hawks.

! Genus III. Corvus. 1. C. Corax (Raven). |

In October 1812 we had an opportunity of observing the great superiority of the Crow over the Raven, although the lat- ter is by much the larger bird. From a tree, whencé we had noticed an uncommon chattering and clamour to proceed, three Ravens issued. successively, and were instantly attacked and driven off with the greatest impetuosity by a Crow, which had been seated on the same tree with them. The antipathy, indeed, these birds bear to each other is Very strong, as we have more than once had an opportunity of noticing. During the breeding- season we have seen a single Rook attack and drive away a Raven which had approached its nest, the Rook uttering at the same time a very angry note. Yet the Raven, when impelled by the force of affection for its young, may be superior to the Rook, as appears by the instance recorded by Mr. Markwick, of a pair of Ravens, which had a nest at Broomham in Sussex, causing

the

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 9

the Rooks to desert a rookery in the same grove, which they had previously frequented for many years.

2. C. Corone (Crow).

We have often been much amused with the sagacious instinct of this bird, and of others of the same genus, in getting at their prey. In the winter season they frequent the sea-shores during the ebb tide in search of muscles and other shell-fish. As soon as the bird has found one, it flies up almost perpendicularly into the air, with the fish in its beak, and lets it fall on the stones in order to break its shell. The bird quickly follows the falling booty, and devours it.

The eggs of the Crow are subject to vary both in shape and colour. Two of them in our possession, taken from the same nest, differ considerably ; one being of a pale green with very few small spots, and the other almost entirely covered with large dusky spots.

3. C. Cornix (Hooded Crow).

The Hooded Crow made its appearance in this country in the year 1816 as early as October 9th. "They are very common in Suffolk on heaths. Sometimes they will approach the habita- tions of man, and feed upon the carrion preserved for dogs. This species is rather numerous in the neighbourhood of Yar- mouth during the winter, feeding among the ooze at low-water; it is also frequently seen on the road between that place and Norwich. | E

4. C. frugilegus (Rook).

"The eggs of the Rook are very good to eat, and by some per- sons have been thought equal to those of the Lapwing. Like those of the Crow, they are sometimes seen of a pale green,

VOL. XV. c with

10 Messrs. SHEPPARD and WuitTEar’s Catalogue

with scarcely any spots upon them. We have seen two instances of a variety of this bird, in which the upper mandible was about an inch longer than the under one. Mr. Harrison has put Rooks’ eggs into the nest of a Magpie, and the young Rooks have been reared by that bird. He says, that he has known this plan adopted with success by those who wished to havea rookery. The same gentleman has had Thrushes reared by a Hedge- sparrow, but in that case he usually assisted the old birds in feeding them.

5. C. Monedula (Jackdaw, Cadaw).

We have seen a flock of these birds busily employed in pick- ing acorns from an oak. They used formerly to breed in hol- low trees in the park at Ash in Suffolk. "Their eggs, as well as those of Rooks, are very good to eat.

6. C. Pica (Magpie). |

The sons of Mr. Lord of Ramsey, Essex, took four young Ravens from a nest, and put them into a waggon in a cart-shed. About the same time they destroyed the young of a Magpie, which had its nest near the cart-shed, and the old Magpies, . hearing the young Ravens crying for food, carried them some, and constantly fed them till they were disposed of by the boys.

7. C. glandarius (Jay).

Some years since, as two gentlemen were sporting at Tunstal in Suffolk, distant about five miles from the sea, they observed an extraordinary flight of Jays, passing in a single line from sea- ward towards the interior. This line extended further than the . eye could reach, and must have consisted of some thousands. Several of them were killed as they passed. But the firing at them did not occasion the rest to deviate from their line of flight.

This

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 11

This circumstance shows that they were then migrating, and it seems highly probable that they came from the Continent.

Genus IV. BOMBYCIVORA.

1. B. garrula (Waxen Chatterer).

The Waxen Chatterer, though only an occasional visitant, has not unfrequently made its appearance in these counties, and generally from November to March. Some years since a pro- digious flock of them were seen in a grove at Bawdsey in Suf- folk, by W. W. Page, Esq., then resident at that place. Mr. Leathes informs us that these birds were in considerable abun- dance at Herringfleet in the winter of 1810.

Genus V. Coractas.

1. C. garrula (Roller).

* [In the month of May 1811, Sir Thomas Gooch's keeper shot a female Roller near Benacre in Suffolk, on the same spot where he had killed the male four years since: the ground they frequented was a coarse sort of heath and fen intermixed."— Brit. Zool. edit. 1812. In answer to some queries respecting a Roller killed in Suffolk, Mr. Hunt of Norwich replies, ** The specimen of the Roller, which was shot at Bungay September 23, 1817, I suspect was a young male bird, as it differs materially in plu- mage from a female one now in my possession. "This bird 1s now in the collection of Joseph Sabine, Esq. I am also credibly informed, that another specimen of the same bird was killed in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth about the same time. A few years since a Roller was shot at Bromeswell in Suffolk. And late in the spring of 1818 another was killed in the neighbour- hood of Cromer."

c 2 Genus

12 Messrs. SHgPPARD and WuiTear’s Catalogue

Genus VI. Onmnriorvs. 1. O. Galbula (Golden Oriole).

The late John Sheppard, Esq., of Campsey Ash, shot a female bird of this species at that place. "Three others (two males and a female) were killed a few years since at Saxmundham. And we have been informed that a pair of these birds built a nest in the garden of the Rev. Mr. Lucas, of Ormsby in Norfolk. One of those mentioned above was killed in the spring.

Genus VII. Srurnus. 1. S. vulgaris (Starling). |

The Starling was formerly seen in Suffolk in much greater flocks than at present, it being now a rare thing to see more than two hundred together; whereas formerly many thousands might be found congregated in the same flock. Very large flocks of Starlings are still sometimes seen in the marshes of Norfolk.

Genus VIII. Pastor. 1. P. roseus (Rose-coloured Thrush).

This species has been four times noticed in Suffolk in the course of a few years. One was shot upon a cherry-tree at Chelmondiston, and being only winged, was fed with raw meat, and kept alive three months; another was also feeding upon cherries at the time it was killed at Polstead in the summer of 1818; a third was met with at Winston near Debenham ; and a fourth, which was a beautiful specimen, was shot at Beccles towards the latter end of the summer. About the same time one was killed in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth. |

Genus

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 13

Genus IX. Lawivs.

1. L. Eacubitor (Great Cinereous Shrike).

The migrations of this species are uncertain. It has been killed in Suffolk in the months of January, April, May, and September. And on the 9th of July 1816 we saw a female Cinereous Shrike at Baytham in that county, which made a noise like that of a pair of shears clipping a fence. We are informed by the Rev. George Reading Leathes, that this bird has been frequently seen in the Hyde near Bury (a large wood on the estate of Sir Thomas Gage), and that he has received a specimen shot there. In the autumn of 1819 four of these birds were sent to Mr. Hunt, which had been killed in Norfolk. Early in December 1819 a Cinereous Shrike frequented a thick thorn hedge, near Mr. Hoy's house at Higham, but was so shy that it could not be approached within gun-shot. On examining the hedge Mr. Hoy found three frogs, and as many mice, spitted on the thorns. He therefore set six very small steel traps, each baited with a mouse. On the following day two of the traps were found sprung, and the baits gone. By watching in con- cealment Mr. H. soon afterwards observed the Shrike to dart down upon a bait, and rise perpendicularly, but not quick enough to escape, as it was caught by two of its toes. ‘The bird was carried alive to the house, and placed in a room in which a thorn bush was fixed, and some mice given to it: one of which it was observed through a hole to spit upon a thorn with the

greatest quickness and adroitness. : : *

2. L. Collurio (Red-backed Shrike).

A nest of this bird, built at Offton, was composed of dried grass and green moss, with a few small twigs of the Clematis vitalba, and lined with fibres. The eggs of the Red-backed

Shrike,

14 Messrs. SHEPPARD and WHITEA R’S Catalogue

Shrike, like those of many other birds, are subject to some va- riation. The ground of them is sometimes blueish-white, some- times yellowish-white, and the spots are much larger and more numerous upon some than upon others. The beak of one of these birds which we shot, was coated over with cow-dung, doubtless from its having been searching therein for insects. We once saw a male Red-backed Shrike eager in chase of a Blackbird. We have heard a bird of this kind exactly imitate the cry of a young Owl; but are at a loss to conjecture its ob- ject, as it cannot be supposed to have done so with a view of decoying birds of that sort within its reach. -

| Genus X. Muscicapa. _ 1. M. Grisola (Spotted Flycatcher, Wall-bird).

The plumage of the young is very different from that of the old birds, being all over spotted. |

The form of the Spotted Flycatcher is altogether adapted for activity of wing : its legs are very short ; its breast broad: the bird narrows rapidly from breast to tail; and it has great length of wing in proportion to its size.

This bird is known in Norfolk and Suffolk by the name of Wall. bird, from the circumstance of its frequently making its nest in

2. M. albicollis (Pied Flycatcher). We have seen a specimen of this bird, which was killed near Cromer.

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 15

Cromer. Two others were caught by Mr. Downes in his garden at Gunton in Suffolk ; and a fourth was shot at Keswick near Norwich.

Genus XI. Turopus.

1. T. viscivorus (Missel Thrush).

The Missel Thrush sings its loud note till the beginning of May, after which time it is not often heard. We have once, . and only once, heard it run through a great variety of the most melodious notes, at a time when the male was wooing the female. The young have somewhat the appearance of hawks. The old birds are very fierce, and make a noise like a watchman's rattle. We have witnessed a similar affray between a pair of these birds and some magpies to that mentioned in White's History of Selborne. After the loss of their brood, the old birds used from time to time to make a noise like a magpie.

2. T. pilaris (Fieldfare, Meslin-Dird).

In backward seasons the Fieldfare is late before it leaves this country: it has been killed in the neighbourhood of Cromer the first week in June. "The bird had then more dark spots upon the breast and sides than one which was killed in autumn, and the spots upon the first part were of a deeper hue. A specimen shot at this season of the year is in the museum of Joseph Sa- bine, Esq. On the 5th of May 1812, we saw Fieldfares in prodigious numbers, flying very high and steering due north. . They were probably migrating at that time, as none were after- wards seen. We observed a very large flock of these birds on the 3rd of May 1820: they were extremely tame, and suffered us to approach within a few yards. "They were observed again on the following day in tlie morning, but were all gone in the afternoon. | 3 3, T. mu-

16 Messrs. SHEPPARD and WHITEAR’S Catalogue 3. T. musicus (Song Thrush). 4. T. iliacus (Red-wing Thrush, Storm Bird).

5. T. torquatus (Ring-Ouzel).

The Ring-Ouzel has been met with in this part of the king- dom at various seasons of the year; but it appears to be most common in October, at which time we have seen twenty of them together. The Rev. G. R. Leathes says, * About the year 1804, a pair of these birds built in a garden at Lowestoffe, and laid eggs." When on the wing, the Ring-Ouzel makes a noise like that caused by the striking of two large stones. Its flight more resembles that of the Fieldfare than that of the Blackbird.

6. T. Merula (Blackbird).

Genus XII. Crncrus. 1. C. aquaticus (Water Ouzel).

À few of these birds have been killed in this part of the king- dom.

Genus XIII. Svrvia. 1. S. Locustella (Grasshopper Warbler).

We have met with this species both in Norfolk and Suffolk. Montagu does not mention, as Bewick has done, the spots upon the throat and neck. Its plumage is very glossy, having a sil- very tinge upon it, particularly the under part. 1t very much resembles a Lark in its general figure, but the hind claw is not long enough for it to rank in that genus. |

On the 15th of May 1820, a nest of the Grasshopper Warbler was found among some high grass, in a wood in the parish of Stoke by Nayland, in Which were six eggs. The old male bird

was

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 17

was killed upon the nest. The structure of this nest resembled that described by Montagu, but the eggs were different from those found by him. They were white, with numerous small purplish-red spots. The nest was artfully concealed, having the long grass drawn over the top; and a hole was made in the grass, as if cut with a pair of scissors, forming a path for the bird to escape. ‘Two other birds of this species were killed at the same time, and several others were heard. "They were ob- served to frequent that part of the wood where the grass was high and the trees low.

2. S. Phragmites (Sedge Warbler, Reed-bird).

The legs and feet of the Sedge Warbler are remarkably large in proportion to the size of the body ; the bill is also larger than is usual in birds of this genus. The disproportion of these parts has been noticed by Ray and White, but seems not to have been remarked by other authors. In a specimen which we killed, the legs asfar as the toes were covered with an epidermis, which might easily have been pulled off. The under part of the toes is yellow. The base of the hind toe very stout and broad, doubtless to give it a firm grasp, the bird living chiefly in sedges and bushes hanging over the water. The wings are very short, compared with the length of the body. Its shape is altogether well calcu- lated for making its way through the close coverts which it fre- quents. The Sedge Warbler will sometimes begin its song exactly like that of the Swallow ; it will fly into the air singing, and come down with its wings turned up in the manner of the Lesser Field Lark, which may perhaps account for its having been called Willow Lark.

3. S. arundinacea (Reed Wren).

The Reed Wren frequents the reeds in the river Gipping, and VOL. XV. D we

18 Messrs. SHgPPARD and WniTEear's Catalogue

we have seen it at Higham: it is also found in other parts of these counties. A bird, which appears to be a variety of this species, was shot about the middle of May by the Rev. James Brown of Norwich, in the marshes below that city. This bird has no vibrisse.

4. S. Luscinia (Nightingale).

5. S. Atricapilla (Black-cap).

The Black-cap may with propriety be called the English Mocking-bird. We have heard it sing the notes of the Blackbird, Thrush, Nightingale, Redstart, and Sedge Warbler ; and besides its own peculiar whistle, which is most delightful, it frequently makes a noise resembling that of a pair of shears used in clipping a fence, which also is the noise made by the young of this spe- cies. During the period of incubation the male Black-cap oc- casionally sits on the eggs in the absence of the female.

6. S. hortensis (Greater Pettychaps).

This species of warbler has been found in the neighbourhood of Ipswich, and we have received its eggs from Diss. One which we examined agreed with Montagu's description; to which might be added, that the upper mandible is notched, and the base of the bill beset with vibrisse. It may also be remarked, that when the mandibles are closed, the suture appears of a yel- lowish hue: the upper parts of the head and the back to the insertion of the tail, have a silvery tint upon them, and in par- ticular lights are damasked, as it were, in longitudinal lines. The under parts of the young are deeply tinged with yellow. In the evening the Greater Pettychaps will sit in the midst of a thick bush, and warble very melodiously for a length of time, in that respect resembling the Nightingale. It will frequently begin

its

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 19

its song exactly like that of a Blackbird, but always ends with its own. Îts general habits are similar to those of the Yellow Wren ; for, like that bird, it seems constantly in motion, hopping about from bough to bough in search of insects, and singing at intervals.

7. S. cinerea (White-throat, Hay-jack).

8. S. Curruca (Lesser White-throat).

We have noticed the Lesser White-throat more than once at Starston, and have also procured its eggs at the same place. It appears to be not uncommon in the neighbourhood of Diss, at which place we have seen several nests belonging to this species. In the month of July 1820, we observed a Lesser White-throat very busy in picking the Aphis lanigera from the apple-trees. This bird often utters a remarkably curious and fine-drawn note, scarcely to be heard. It also warbles softly and finely, as Mon- tagu observes; and before its common note chu, lu, lu, lu, it usually begins with a short and gentle warble. |

9. S. Rubecula (Red-breast).

10. S. Phanicurus (Redstart, Firetail).

Perhaps the Redstart sings earlier and later than any other diurnal songster. We have heard it singing after ten o'clock at night, and at three the following morning. A Redstart, which built in our garden in the summer of 1819, adopted part of the song of a Lesser White-throat, which much frequented the same place; and its imitation was so exact as sometimes to deceive the nicest ear. Almost all the summer warblers are, more or less, mock-birds.

11. S. Hippolais (Lesser Pettychaps, White-throat). D 2 12. S. si-

20 Messrs. SHEPPARD and WutrEAn's Catalogue

12. S. sibilatrix (Wood Wren). 13. S. Trochilus (Yellow Wren, Oven Bird).

14. 5. Regulus (Golden-crested Wren).

The nest of this bird is generally built underneath the branch of a tree, and in form similar to that of a Chaffinch. But we have also seen it pendulous, with an aperture on one side ; so that Montagu was wrong in contradicting what other authors have said on this subject. There are few birds which do not occasionally vary from the general form in building their nests. There is one peculiarity in the nest of the Golden-crested Wren : the inside of it is not made smooth, like those of the generality of birds, but loose feathers hang into the middle of the nest, so that neither the eggs, nor the young, when small, can be seen.

The design of this structure seems to be, to preserve the warmth of its diminutive contents.

15. S.T, roglodytes (Common Wren; J enny Wren, Kitty, Titty, and Bobby Wren).

Genus XIV. SAXICOLA. 1. S. Œnanthe (Wheatear).

The Wheatear breeds in the rabbit-burrows which abound in the sand-hills on the coast of Norfolk. In Suffolk it frequents gravel and sand-pits, heaths, and uncultivated places : it is also found on similar spots in the first-mentioned county.

2. S. Rubetra (Whinchat).

3. S. Rubicola (Stonechat).

Genus

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 21

Genus XV. ACCENTOR.

1. A. modularis (Hedge Warbler).

Genus XVI. MOTACILLA.

1. M. alba (White Wagtail).

2. M. Boarurula (Gray Wagtail).

The Gray Wagtail is by no means uncommon in the autumn and winter season in the low meadows by the river Gipping in Suffolk, and likewise in the neighbourhood of Higham. It is also frequently met with in Norfolk at the same seasons. lt runs upon the tops of the weeds, which are partly submerged in the ditches, and probably feeds upon the Dytisci and Gyrini,

which are almost always to be found in those situations.

3. M. flava (Yellow Wagtail).

This species is not generally plentiful in Suffolk, though it is pretty common on parts of the river Waveney, which divides that county from Norfolk. !

Genus XVII. ANTHUS. 1. À. pratensis (Tit Lark).

2. A. arboreus (Field Lark).

A common species in the neighbourhood of Harleston during the summer ; and it is also found in various parts both of Norfolk and Suffolk. This bird is subject not only to an Hippobosca, but likewise to a large species of Acarus. Five of these insects were taken off the head of a lark on the first day of its arrival.

Genus

22 - Messrs. SugPPAnD and WurTEAR's Catalogue

Genus XVIII. Araupa.

1. À. arvensis (Skylark).

It appears from the following remarks of Mr. Woolnough of Hollesley, that these birds frequently migrate into this country from the Continent in autumn, and return thither in the spring. Mr. W. thus writes :—** I have frequently seen /arks and rooks come flying off the sea; not in one year only, but in many ; not on one day only in the same year, but on several. I have seen them coming off the sea for many hours in the same day ;—the: larks from five and ten to forty or fifty in a flock ; the rooks, on the same day, in companies from three to fifteen. This I once observed in November for three days in succession ; the early part of that month was the general time of their coming: our fields were then covered with the Zarks, to the great destruction of the late-sown wheat. They generally remained with us till the first heavy fall of snow, and then disappeared. Early in the February following they appeared again on the coast in innu- merable flocks, but disappeared as soon as the weather became fine, with a light westerly wind: from which circumstance I con- cluded that they again crossed the sea. They appeared to me to be the same as our common Skylarks.

Those darks and rooks that I have seen coming off the sea, did not appear like birds that had flown off for pleasure ; they always flew low, close to the water, and seemed fully intent on reaching the shore, on which they often alighted directly on reaching it.”

2. A. arborea (Woodlark).

The Wood-Lark breeds in this part of the kingdom, but it is a thinly-scattered species.

Genus

of the Norfolk and Suffolk Birds. 23

Genus XIX. Parus.

1. P. major (Great Titmouse).

This species has an astonishing variety of notes. When dis- turbed on its nest