THE

s

p

.a

AMERICAN JOURNAL

OF

SCIENCE AND ARTS.

I

CONDUCTED BY

PROFESSORS B. SILLIMAN, B. SILLIMAN, Jr.,

AND

JAMES D. DANA,

IN CONNECTION WITH

PROF. ASA GRAY, of CAMBRIDGE, BROF. LOUIS AGASSIZ, or CAMBRIDGE, DR. WOLCOTT GIBBS, of NEW YORK.

SECOND SERIES.

VOL. XIX. MAY, 1855.

MO. BOT. GARDc-N

WIQ

NEW HAVEN: EDITORS. NEW YORK: G. P. PUTNAM & CO-

Printed by B. L. Hamlen— Printer to Vale College,

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIX

NUMBER LV.

\

0

Art. L Account of some Volcanic Springs in the Desert of the

Colorado, in Southern California ; by John L. LeConte, M.D., 1

II. On the Geographical Distribution of Crustacea; by James

D. Dana, 6

III. Contributions to Mineralogy ; by Dr. F. A. Genth, 15

IV. On the Diamagnetic Force ; by Prof. Tyndall, - - 24

^ / V. Reply to some remarks by W. H. Wenham, and Notice of * £ a new locality of a Microscopic Test-object; by Professor

J. W. Bailey,

VI. On the bearing of the Barometrical and Hygrometical Ob- servations at Hobarton and the Cape of Good Hope on the general theory of the Variations of Atmospherical Phenom- ena ; by Professor Dove,

VII. On the Composition of Eggs in the the series of Animals

VIII. The Arabic or Indian Method of Notation ; by Thomas H.

McLeod,

IX. On the Effect of the Pressure of the Atmosphere on the Mean Level of the Ocean ; by Captain Sir James Clark-

Ross, R.N., F.R.S.,

Lachlan,

•XII. Synopsis of the Ichthyological Fauna of the Pacific slope of North America, chiefly from the collections made by the U. S. Expl. Exped. under the command of Capt. C. Wilkes, with recent Additions and Comparisons with Eastern types ;

by L. Agassiz,

XIII. Thoughts oa Solution and the Chemical Process ; by

T. S. Hunt, ......

28

31

Part I. By A. Valenciennes and Fremy, ... 38

48

52

X- Report to the Academy of Sciences, Paris, on the Researches relative to Earthquakes of M. Alexis Perrey ; by the Com- mission, MM. Liouville, Lame, and Elie de Beaumont, 55

XI. On the Periodical Rise and Fall of the Lakes ; by Major

60

71

100

IV CONTENTS.

XIV. Correspondence of M. Jerome Nickles Obituary ; M. Brisseau de Mirbel, 103. Astronomical Refraction : Con- stitution of the Sun ; Solar Magnetism, 104. Optics Man- ufacture of Glass for Objectives : Polarization of the At- mosphere, &c. : Microscopes for Micrographic demonstra- tions, by Nachet, 105. Aluminium and the Alkaline Met- als, 106. Manufacture of Alcohol : Crystallizations, 107. Introdution into France of a new species of Silkworm : Industry, Agriculture, and Productions of Algeria, 108.

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics. On the influence of the direction of transmission upon the pass-

age of radiant heat through crystals, 110. On the condensation of gases by solid bodies,

and on the heat disengaged in the act of absorption, 111. Researches on the Ethers,

112. On the cyanic and cyanuric ethers and on the amid?, 113. On some new Ethers :

Action of the protosalts of iron on Nitronaphtalin and Nitrobenzin, 114. Prof. Tyndall

on some Peculiarities of the 3Iagnetie Field, 115.

i Mineralogy and Geology. Analysis of Allophane from the Black ox yd of Copper mines

of Polk County, Tennessee, by Dr. C. T. Jackson : On the Boracic Acid Compounds

of the Tuscan Lagoons, by Emil Bechi, 119. On the Thickness of the Ice of the

Ancient Glaciers of North Wales, and other Points bearing on the Glaciation of the

Country, by Prof. Ramsay, 121. On the Foliation of some Metamorphic Rocks in

Scotland, by Prof. E. Forbes, 122. On the Relations of the "New Red Sandstone"

of the Connecticut Valley and the Coal-bearing rocks of Eastern Virginia and North

Carolina, by Prof. W. B. Rogers, 123. Note on an indication of depth of Primeval

Seas, afforded by the remains of color in Fossil Testacea, by Edward Forbes, F.R.S.,

126 Arsenate of Lead and Vanadate of Lead : Oa the Jdenitity of Ripidolite of \on

Kobell with Clinochlore, by N. von Kokscharov, 127

Botany and Zoology. Martius Flora Brasiliensis, fasc. XII : The non-assimilation of Nitro- gen by Plants: Lupulin : The Fertilization of Ferns, 12S. Botanical Necrology: Payer; Traite d' Organogenic Vegetale Comparee, 129. The Micrographic Dictionary, by Griffith and IIknfrey : The Individual in Plants, etc. : On the Influence of the Solar Radiations on the Vilal Powers of Plants growing under different Atmospheric Conditions, by J. II. Gladstone, 130 Note on the Mastodon {?), and the Elephas

primigenius, by Sir John* Richardson, 131. Remains of the Mammoth and Mastodon in California, by \V. P. Blake : Discovery of Viviparous Fi^h in Louisiana, by B. Dow- Ler, M.D , with remarks by Prof. Agassi/., 133. Perforating Animals, 136.— Mollusca of Irkutsk, 137.

Astronomy. Elements of Urania : Comet, 1854, IV : New Planets, 137.

Miscellaneous Intelligence. On the .Means of Realizing the Advantages of the Air-Engine, by William John Macquorn Rvnicine, F.R.S.S., etc., 137.— -On Lightning Conduc- tors, 133. On the Effect of Pressure on the Temperature of Fusion of different Sub- stances, by Mr. Hoi-kins, 140.— M. Foucault's nouveiles experiences sur le mouvement de la terre au rnoyen du Gyroscope, 141. On 3Ieteorolites and Asteroids, by R. P. Greg, Jr., 143. Summary of the Weather for June, at San Francisco, California ; by H. Gibbons, M.D., 144. Observations on Atmospheric pressure ; from A. and H. Schla- gintweit's N Untersucbungen liber die physicalische Geographie und die Geologie der

C ONTENTS. V

Alpen," 145. On the Artificial preparation of Sea Water for Marine Vivaria, by Dr. G. Wilson : On the Results of Experiments on the Preservation of Fresh Meat, by Mr. G. Hamilton, 146. Magnetic Needle : Official Report of the United States Expedition to explore the Dead Sea and the River Jordan, by Lieut. W. F. Lynch, U. S. IN., 147. Illustrations of the Birds of California, Texas, Oregon, British and Russian America, by John Cassin, 149. Orr's Circle of the Sciences Crystallography and 3Iineralogy, by Rev. Walter Mitchell, M.A., and Prof. Tennant : Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal: Memoria sobre las Antigiiedades Neogranadinas, por Ezequiel Uricoe- choea, 153. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, zu Wien i Economic Rurale, considt'roe dans ses rapports avec la Chimie, la Physique et la Metcorologie, par J. B. Boussingault : Traite des Arts Ceramiques ou des Poteries, etc., par Alex. Brongniart, 2nd edit, revue et augmentee par M. A. Salvetat, 151. Cours special sur l'Induction, le Diamagnetisme, le Magnetisme, etc., par M. Mat- teucci : Nouveau Systeme de Navigation, etc., par PlanavergiNE, 152.

List of Works, 152.

NUMBER L VI.

Spark, within certain Gases as seen through a Prism ; by D. Alter, M.D.,

XXII. Synopsis of the Ichlhyological Fauna of the Pacific slope of North America, chiefly from the collections made by the U. S. Expl. Exped. under the command of Capt. C. Wilkes, with recent Additions and Comparisons with Eastern types ;

XXIII

by L. Agassiz,

year

Page

164

Art. XV. Memoir on Meteorites A Description of five new Me- teoric Irons, with some theoretical considerations on the ori- gin of Meteorites based on their Physical and Chemical char- acters ; by Prof. J. Lawrence Smith, M.D., ... 153

XVI. On the Periodical Rise and Fall of the Lakes ; by Major Lachlan,

XVII. On the Clinochlore of Achmatowsk ; by N. von „Kok-

SCHAROV, -•

XVIII. A brief notice of some facts connected with the Duck Town, Tennessee, Copper Mines ; by M. Titomey, - - 181

XIX. On the Periodical Variations of the Declination and Direct- ive Force of the Magnetic Needle ; by Prof. W. A. Norton, 183

XX. Observations on the Fructification of the Arachis hypo- gaea; by Hugh M. Neisler, .... - 2lL

AXL On pprtnin Phxrcinnl Prnnprf IPS of the

176

213

215

Lake of the Woods ; by Henry R. Schoolcraft, - 232

VI CONTENTS.

Page.

*

kept at Marietta, Ohio ; by S. P. Hildreth, M.D., - 234 XXV. On the Composition of Eggs in the animal series ; by A.

Valenciennes and Fremy. Part II. - - - 238

XXIV. Chemical Examinations ; by Ezequiel Uricoechea, - 243

XXVII. Review of the Fifth volume of the Agriculture of New York, &c, by E. Emmons, 247

XXVIII. Cartography ; by Prof. C. Dewey, - 252

XXIX. On a remarkable change which has taken place in the composition and characters of the Water, supplied to the City of Boston from Lake Cochituate ; by Augustus A. Hayes, M.D.,

257

XXX. On Gum Mezquite ; by Campbell Morfit, M.D., * 263

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics. On the elastic forces of vapors in vacuo and in gases at different temperatures, and on the tension of mixed vapors, 2G1— On butylic Alcohol, 268.— On the volumetric determination of Copper : On the action of iodid of amy I upon an alloy of sodium and tin, 269. New Organic radicals containing arsenic : Action of iodid of phosphorus upon glycerine, 270.

Geology, Botany, Zoology. Darstellung der Flora des Hainichen Ebersdorfer und des Flohaer Kohlenbassins, by H. B. Geinitz, 271.— A Monograph of the Cirripedia wilh figures of all the species; the Balanidae, or sessile Cirripedes, the Verrucidae, etc., by Charles Darwin, F.R.S., F.G.S., 272.

Astronomy. Elements of Euphrosyne (31), 272.

Miscellaneous Intelligence. On an Atmospheric Electrical Phenomenon, by H. Ware, 272. On the Clearness of the Atmosphere in Orooraiah, by Rev. D. T. Stoddard, from a letter addressed to Sir John F. W. Ilerschel, 273. Abstract of Meteorological Observations made at Burlington, Vt., in 1854, by Z. Thompson, 278. Demonstration of the Theory of the Pendulum Experiment, by Rev. J. L. Dagg, 280. On the dis- tinction supposed to limit Lhe Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, by Edwin Lankes- ter, M.D., F.R.S., 282.— Letter on the Smithsonian Institution, by Prof. Agassiz, ad- dressed to the Hon. Charles W. Upham, 28 i. On the so-called "Fountain of Blood7 of Honduras, by Dr. E. D. North, 287.— On a large Diamond from the district of Boga- gem, by M. Dufkenoy : Observations on the Variable Star Algol wanted, 288. Dis- covery of Gold in Australia : Stereoscopes, 289 Height of Perpetual Snow in the Alps : Hail at Cuba : Gold near Reading, Pa. : On the Mountain Systems of America, 290.— Obituary.— Professor Edward Forbes, 290.— Faraday's Lectures, 291.— Professor

Brande's Ten Lectures on Arts connected with Organic Chemistry : Outlines of Chem- ical Analysis, prepared for the Chemical Laboratory at Giessen, by Prof. Heinrich Will: The Native Races of the Russian Empire, by R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S., &c, 295.

List of Works, 296.

CONTENTS.

Vll

NUMBER LVII.

Art. XXXI. The Vegetable Individual, in its relation to Species ;

by Dr. Alexander Biiaun, -

XXXII. A Research on Tellurmethyle ; by F. Wohler and

J. Dean,

XXXIII. Memoir on Meteorites A Description of five new Me- teoric Irons, with some theoretical considerations on the ori- gin of Meteorites based on their Physical and Chemical char- acters ; by Prof. J. Lawrence Smith, M.D., -

XXXIV. On the Variable Star Algol, or (?Persei:

by Fr. Ar-

GELANDER,

Page.

297

318

322

344

349

353 371

385

391 397

XXXV. Supernumerary Tooth in Mastodon giganteus ; by John C. Warren, M.D., ......

XXXVI. Supplement to the Mineralogy of J. D. Dana, by the Author. Number I,

XXXVII. Review of Murchison's Siluria, ...

XXXVIII. Barometric Anomalies about the Andes; by Lieut

M. F. Maury, U. S. N.,

XXXIX. Impressions (chiefly Tracks) on Alluvial Clay, in Had ley, Mass. ; by Charles H. Hitchcock,

XL. Emmons on American Geology, -

Art. XLL Correspondence of M. Jerome Nickles On the rela tions which exist between the chemical composition of bod ies and their physical properties, 407. Limits of the vapori zation of Mercury, 408. Assimilation of Nitrogen by Plants Action of some animals fluids on the fats : Calculating Ma chine, 409. Artillery in the 15th Century : Zoological So ciety for Acclimation and Domestication, 410. Silkworms, 411. Anesthesis of Bees : Pisciculture : Production of Al- cohol, 412. Photographic news : Bibliographical notices, 413, 414.— Obituary notice of Melloni, 414.— Death of M. Braconnot : Death of Joseph Remy, 415. Monument to Arago : Correspondence of T. S. Hunt On the Equiva- lent of some species : The so-called Talcose Slates of the Green Mountains: A newly discovered Meteoric Iron: Ores of Nickel from Lake Superior : 416, 417.

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics. On the specific volumes of fluid compounds, 418. On the em- ployment of a solution of chlorid of iron in the galvanic battery, 420. On the law of the absorption of gases : On the mechanical equivalent of heat, 421.— A new Carbonic

Vlll

CONTENTS.

Acid Apparatus, by Alfred 31. Mayer, 422. On Bimucateof Amyl-oxyd, by Samuel W. Johnson, 423.— On Terrestrial Magnetism, by Col. Sabine, 424. On the Stauro- scope of Prof. Fr. von Kobeli, 425.

Mineralogy and Geology. Mineralogies! Notes, by T. S. Hunt, 428. Notice of a new Locality of Molybdate of Iron, by Wm. J. Taylor : Reaction of common salt in the formation of Minerals, by M. Fokch hammer, 4~9. Gneiss : Meteoric Iron from Green- land : On the Sandstone and Coal of North Carolina of the age of the Richmond coal basin, by -Professor D. Olmsted, 430. Preliminary Geological Report of the U. S. Pa- cific Railroad Survey, under the command of Lieut. It. S. Williamson, by W. P. Blake, 433. Notes on some Fossils of the so-called Taconic System described by Dr. Emmons, by James Hall, 434. Mikrogeologie ; Das Erden und Felsen schaffende Wirken des unsichtbar kleinen selbstandigen Lebens auf der Erde, von C. G. Ehrenberg, 435.- Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana in the year 1852, by Randolph B. Marcy, assisted by George B. M'Clellan, 437. Annual Report on the Geological Survey of the State of Wisconsin, by James G. Percival: First Annual Report of the Geo- logical Survey of the State of New Jersey for the year 1854 : Geological Survey of Can- ada, 433.

Botany and Zoology. Dr. Hooker's Flora of New Zealand : Seeman's Botany of the Voy- age of the Herald, 439. Tulasne on the Uredineae and Ustilaginea? : The Grasses of Wisconsin and the adjacent States, by I. A. Lapham, 442. H. G. Reichenbach ; De Pollinis Orchidearum Genesi ac Structura, et de Orchideis in artem ac Systema redi- gendis : Trigonocarpon : Analytical Class-Book of Botany, by Frances H. Green and

Joseph W. Congdon, 443. On Bathygnathns borealis, an extinct Saurian of the New Red Sandstone of Prince Edwards Island, by Joseph Leidv, M.D., 444.

Astronomy. Elements of Polymnia : Elements of Amphitrite, 446. Comet 111, 1854: New Comet, 447.

Miscellaneous Intelligence. 3Iascher's Stereoscope, 447. A wonderful specimen of credu- lous ignorance ; Fossil man and woman, 448. Obituary. Notice of the late Frederic W. Davis of Boston, 448.— The Physical Geography of the Sea, by Lieut. M. F. Maury, L.L.D. : Report and Charts of the Cruise of the Dolphin, by Lieut. S. P. Lee : Gram- mar and Dictionary of the Dacota Language, edited by Rev. S. R. Riggs, A.M., 449. FresneFs Wellenflache ; Axonometrical Projections of the most important Geometrical surfaces, Drawings of Descriptive Geometry, etc., by Ferdinand Engel, 450. A Catalogue of British Fossils, etc., by John Morriss, 451. Fossils of South Carolina, by M. Tuomey and F. S. Holmes : Notices of recent publications, 451, 452.

List of Works, 454.

Index, 455.

ERRATA.— P. 6, 21 1. from bottom, for 1852, read 1853.— P. 160, 6 1. fr. top, for Gouck,

read Couch.

Vol. XIX.

JANUARY, 1855.

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THE

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS

[SECOND SERIES.]

Art. I. Account of some Volcanic Springs in the Desert of the Colorado, in Southern California; by John L. LeConte, M.D.

In October, 1850, being at Vallecitas, San Diego Co., California, it was my good fortune to make a visit, in company with Major Heintzelman and Mr. Matsell, to certain boiling springs, not simi- lar 10 any which have been noticed in our territory ; and as the only account yet given of them has appeared in a newspaper, it seemed to me, that the rough notes taken while making the visit, might with slight changes be of interest to my scientific friends.

Mysterious accounts had been given ns of a ' Volcan' situated in the midst of a plain covered with salt, near the shore of a lake ; and although most of the salt used by the inhabitants of the mountains east of Santa Isabel was brought from this lake, no very definite account either of the distance of the Jake, or of the phenomena to be seen there, could be procured. It was only apparent that some awe-inspiring object had heretofore defended

itself against the prying curiosity of man.

Major Heintzelman,"then in command of the troops about to be stationed at the Gila river, having determined to visit these objects of unknown interest, kindly offered me an opportunity of

joining his party.

Having secured as guides the interpreter from Santa Isabel, and the head chief of the i Lleguina' Indians living near the Salt Lake, we left San Felipe a short time after the rising of the moon on the morning of the 28th of October.

Second Series, YoL XIX, Xo. 55.— Jan., 1855. 1

2 /. L. Le Conte on Volcanic Springs in Southern California.

Entering almost immediately a small canon, by which we as- cended a rocky ridge, we soon descended again into a narrow deep canon trending N.E. ; this we followed for several miles, encoun- tering in our route many precipitous places, over which we had great difficulty in leading our horses. The rocks were meta- morphic, of a gneissoid and sienitic character, and the scanty vegetation was similar to that of Vallecitas ; the most conspicuons objects being Larrea mexicana, Fouquiera spinosa, Prosopis, Agave and a variety of brittle and uncouth looking Opuntiae, both of the flattened and cylindrical forms.

The canon finally entered a long valley, in which were remains of some Indian huts, now abandoned from the failure of water.

The valley opened abruptly by a gap through the most eastern mountain range, and at 8 a. m. we found ourselves on the edge of the great desert, though still considerably above the general level of its surface. An extensive but peculiarly uninteresting prospect was before us; an immense plain extended to the eastern horizon, broken towards the north by some slight inequalities; masses of rock lay around us on the mountain side; the mountain itself, appeared a wall of naked rocks, and it was only within a small circle of vision, that an earth colored vegetation could be observed : as if the influence of our own living selves had communicated a fictitious vitality to the spot where we stood, which soon would depart with us, and leave the ghosts of plants to shrink again into the rocks from which they had been evoked by our presence.

At an indefinite distance towards the N. E. was seen a low range of mountains, near which a silvery surface with a slight fog rest- ing over it seemed to indicate water. This the guides declared was the Salt Lake, on the shores of which were the objects of our search, and confidently assured us that we should reach it before night

Halting here for breakfast, some excellent capon, and hard bread, washed down with a lirnited draught from our canteens soon prepared us for the dreary ride ; the only resources to shorten the way being very limited geology, and as may be inferred from the nature of the country, equally poor botany. It is no wonder that Government reports abound with names of plants, which suggest nothing but linguistic difficulties, for there is little else in the vast deserts of Western America to occupy the attention of the intelligent traveller; and with the determination of one resolved to struggle with the dull sublimity of inorganic matter, he fre- quently breaks off and preserves a piece of some hideous veget-

able, whose only charms are the ugliness of its form, the lifeless-

ness of its color, and the apparent absence of flower, and foliage, and every thing else that renders a plant attractive.

Overlying the metamorphic rock was seen a conglomerate of great thickness, similar to that which at Vallecitas forms the

J. L. Le Conte on Volcanic Springs in Southern California. 3

greater portion of the eastern range of the Sierra: boulders fre- quently of immense size, but scarcely rounded, torn in former ages from the adjacent ranges of mountains, are cemented together by a small quantity of calcareous matter enveloping gravel of differ- ent degrees of fineness: this cement presents somewhat the ap- pearance of bad mortar. Outside of this conglomerate was seen nnstratified drift. Beyond the mountains, can be traced on the desert a tertiary formation similar to that of San Diego, and above this stratified drift. These formations are nearly horizontal and form low ridges. The vegetation was still similar to that of Val-

© - - ■«*■ *~D

lecitas, with the addition of a very large Echinocactus. of which several grew occasionally from one base: Opuntia vaginata was also seen, and an Ephedra appeared with a species of Koeberlinia, These gradually faded out, till at last nothing remained but Pro- sopis, Larrea, and a plant at that season leafless. The desert contains three principle levels; of these the upper (consisting of the part near mountain ridges) is covered with gravel, small stones from the mountains, silicified wood and oyster shells; the middle level is sandy, and the lower one clayey, with great numbers of fresh water shells scattered over its surface : among these the only bivalve is a species of Anodon, now found in the Colorado River, (A. californiensis Lea)] the other species are small univalves, be- longing to Physa, and Amnicola. These clayey parts extend for many miles, and are evidently the beds of lagoons, which on rare occasions may be filled with water; they belong to the New River system of overflow, hereafter to be described. Having travelled from the mountains a nearly east course, we encamped about 4 p. m. on the bank of a small stream running northwardly to the Salt Lake: the banks were precipitous, about twenty feet in height, and the waters disagreeably saline. This stream is evidently Ca- riso creek, which being lost in the sands a few miles from its source here reappears on the lower level of the desert : some rushes growing on the edge of the water furnished food for our horses.

Starting the next morning at 3 a. m. we arrived about 10, at an Indian village situated on New River, which is here near its term- ination, and probably when the supply is abundant, sends a portion of its water to the Salt Lake : at present there are only two or three small pools near the village.

New River is an important object to those compelled to cross the desert, since from it is derived the chief supply of water, to be found between Cariso creek and the Colorado. It is in reality a slough of the latter, which is only different from the ordinary sloughs near the river by its greater length, extending by a very tortuous course 70 or 80 miles from the point where it leaves the river. The bed of the Colorado, like that of other rivers carrying a large amount of sediment, is above the lower portions of the adjacent dountry, which are thus, in time of overflow supplied

now stand, are several volcanic mounds about 100-150 fee! high j hastening to one of these, I found it composed of lava.

4 J. L. Le Conte on Volcanic Springs in Southern California.

by these sloughs; frequently however the annual rise of the river is not sufficient to supply New River with water, and should this occur for two years in succession the lagoons along its course be- come entirely dry, and the difficulty of crossing the desert is much increased.

*

The whole course of New River is marked by a large species of Chenopodium, called 'Kelite' by the natives, and ' careless weed' by the emigrants; it furnishes almost the only food for cattle aud horses to be found in this region : the seeds are used by the Indians in preparing a kind of cake, which is quite palatable, [ when nothing else can be procured. The green leaves (if they ever are green) may be used as a salad, or boiled as a vegetable.

The ground passed over before arriving at the village was in many places covered with a thin layer of sandstone, forming oc- casionally concretions like claystones ; this sandstone has appar- ently been formed by springs similar to those seen afterwards. [ The dust was sometimes extremely fine and incoherent, so that [ the feet of the horses would sink from six to eight inches; many pieces of pumice were also found stranded on the surface.

The Indian village contained about fifty inhabitants, who re- ceived us in a very friendly manner, offering us melons, beans and pumpkins, which they raise in abundance. Visiting the village were some Yumas from the Colorado, who recounted to Major Heintzelman the depredations committed by the grand army of California, recently sent under one Major General Morehead, to avenge the murder of a party of ferrymen at the junction of the Colorado aud Gila. Though these depredations were not remark- able, the Indians had apparently had enough of the war, and learning that a military post was soon to be established, they became very anxious to make peace, until another opportunity for safely committing some outrage should occur.

After resting our horses, we started with an escort of seven or eight Indians, who used all the power of their eloquence to dis- suade us from going. Nevertheless, on our exclaiming 'that we had come a long distance to see these volcanoes, and that we would seek them for ourselves, if they were afraid to accompany us, the debate ceased, and we rode on in a northwesterly direc- tion. After going about eight miles, we reached a soft muddy plain bordering the Salt Lake : the salt in consequence of a recent shower had almost disappeared, only a few crusts about half an inch thick now remaining. The deposit is said to be sometimes a foot in thickness.

North of the lake, and now distant from us six or eight miles, is a chain of rocky hills 800-1000 feet high, portions of which have a volcanic appearance. Rising from the plain, where we

/• L. Le Conte on Volcanic Springs in Southern California. 5

and pumice : several of these mounds are arranged in an arc of a circle, but the general direction is a little west of south.

Having arrived thus far, and given our horses in charge to some of the Indians, the interpreter again endeavored to dissuade us from further exploration. He said that on approaching the springs, the steam from which was now distinctly seen, devils in the shape of large black birds rose from the ground, and descended with overwhelming force on the head of the rash adventurer : he stated that a tradition still existed among the Indians, of one Juan Lonquiss (Longecuisse? perhaps a "Crapaud" trader) who had met this dreadful fate, and asked us in a pathetic tone, how he could return to his town, if we too were sacrificed in this way. We replied, in substance, that devils had no power over us, and that we were stronger than they, and that probably they were aware of that fact, and would not appear during our visit.

This seemed very blasphemous to their ears, and the whole escort suddenly dropped behind, leaving us to our fate.

Advancing towards the place, whence the steam issued, we found in the muddy plain numerous circular holes containing boiling mud, and exhaling a naphtha-like odor. Many of them are encrusted with inspissated mud, forming cones 3-4 feet high,

from the apex of which proceed mingled vapors of water, sal-am-

moniac and sulphur. Four of them eject steam and clear saline water, with great violence, resembling in appearance the jet from

the pipe of a high-pressure engine. The falling spray around these has formed a group of acicular stalagmites, composed of aragonite with a small quantity of silica and some saline matter: many of these stalagmites are tubular in form. Another spring was a large basin filled intermittingly to overflowing with foam and clear saline water: around the edge were botryoidal masses of aragon- ite, like that forming needles around the cones. Near the cones, in little fissures, were crusts of sal-ammoniac,# some of which were colored red, possibly by sulphuret of selenium.

The Indians, finding that the black devils did not assail us, ran up to us, with great exultation, and leaped about, and danced in such an extravagant manner, that we were obliged to caution them of the danger of breaking through ; the solid crust was evidently very thin, as it bent and trembled under our weight in a very threatening manner.

In returning we found on the most northern of the volcanic mounds before mentioned a quantity of scoria and obsidian, and distinctly traced the course of a lava stream down the side. The mounds all showed traces of aqueous action, in the terrace- like manner in which the pumice was arranged. The rest of our

* The specimens of saline crusts having been subsequently lost, I cannot be cer- tain that they were really sal-ammoniac, and only refer them to that salt from the karpness of their taste.

6 Geographical Distribution of Crustacea.

course to the Indian village was unmarked by any incident wor- thy of note. The next day about 12, having taken a supply of musk-melons as our only food, we started for Vallecitas. The afternoon was windy, and, a rare phenomenon in this region, showery. About nine or ten miles from the village, we passed some mounds covered with cinders and pumice, and on the top of one of them found a crater-like hollow, in which grow some very large canes. Shortly afterwards the strata of fresh water deposit were seen to be vertical, and were filled with a species of Gna- thodon (G. Lecontei Conrad). About 4 p. m., we skirted along the northern edge of a long curved range of hills, the base of which was composed of strata of limestone dipping outwardly, and containing also Gnathodon ; around these hills and mounds were concentric lines of small stones from the mountains arranged by aqueous action.

About half past five, we encamped in the bed of Cariso creek, here entirely dry ; the night was stormy, but a melon apiece, and the warmth of a large mesquite fire soon made us contented. Leaving at four the next morning, we reached Vallecitas in the afternoon, without farther adventure, worthy of being here nar- rated.

Note. By the kindness of Capt. Davidson, I learn that while he was stationed at Fort Yuma, in Dec, 1853, a violent earth- quake occurred ; the ground in the vicinity of the Fort opened, forming fissures, from which were thrown mud, sand and water: portions of the mountains several miles distant were seen to fall, and about forty miles S. E. of the Fort, in the direction of some springs, said to be similar to those herein described, was seen an immense column of steam. It is to be hoped that some of the officers then at the post will favor science with an account of the phenomena observed.

Art. II. On the Geographical Distribution of Crustacea;

by James D. Dana.

(Continued from vol. xviii, p. 326.)

V. TETRADECAPODA.

Before staling the conclusions from the tables* of the Tetra- decapoda, it should be observed that this division of Crustacea has been less thoroughly explored than that of the Podophthal- ra ia, and future investigations must vary much the proportions between the species of the different regions. The coasts of Eu- rope and the northern seas, are within the reach of European zo-

* As already mentioned the Tables published in the original Report are here omitted.

Geographical Distribution of Crustacea. 7

ologists, and have been carefully examined ; while voyagers through the tropics have usually contented themselves with col- lecting the larger Crustacea. In the genus Gamrnarus, not a tropical species had been reported, until our investigations, which brought ten or eleven to light, being one-third the whole number of those of ascertained localities reported to this genus.

Some general conclusions may, however, be safely drawn from the facts already known, although the exact ratios deduced from the tables may hereafter be much modified.

I. The Tetradecapoda are far more numerous in extra-tropical latitudes than in the tropical.

The proportion in the table is 521 : 146 ; allowing for future discoveries, it may be set down at 2: 1, without fear of exceed- ing the truth.

II. The genera of extra-tropical seas are far more numerous than those of the tropical.

Out of the forty-nine genera of Isopdda, only nineteen are known to occur in the tropics, and but four of these are peculiar to the tropics.

Out of twenty genera of Anisopoda) six only are known to be tropical, and but two are exclusively so.

Among the Amphipoda, out of fifty genera of Gammaridea, only seventeen are known to contain tropical species; nine are exclusively tropical, and but ten, including these nine, have more tropical than extra-tropical species. The Caprellidea and Hyperidea embrace thirty genera, fifteen or sixteen of which include tropical species.

The variety of extra-tropical forms compared with the tropical, is hence very great.

III. From the tables, the ratio of extra-tropical and tropical species m the

Isopoda, is Anisopoda, Amphipoda,

4 : 1 6 : 1 3 : 1

Among the Isopoda, the Idotreidea are the most decidedly cold- water species, and the Cymothoidea, the least so. The ratio of species for the

Idotseidea, is

Oniscoidea,

Cymothoidea,.

S : 1 7 : 1

2£: 1

Two-ninths of the extra-tropical Idotaeidea (or nine species) belong to the Frigid zone, and nearly one-tenth of the extra-trop- ical Oniscoidea (or nine species) ; while less than a twenty-fifth of the Cymothoidea occur in the Frigid zone, and but one of these has not also been found in lower latitudes.

Of the Amphipoda, the Gammaridea are most strongly extra- tropical, the proportion being for the extra-tropical and tropical

8 Geographical Distribution of Crustacea.

species 3^:1; while the ratio in the Caprellidea, is 3:1; and in the Hyperidea, 1^ : 1. Oat of one hundred and seventy-eight extra-tropical species of Gammaridea, sixty-six are Frigid zone species, besides two which have been found both in the Frigid and Temperate zones.

IV. The genera which extend into the frigid region are the following. The names of those more especially frigid, according to present knowledge, are italicised ; and the proportion of frigid species to the whole number of extra-tropical, is mentioned in decimals, where they are not exclusively frigid.

Idot^idea. Idotea (0*3), Glyptonotus.

Oniscoidea.— Jcera (0'25), jceridina, Asellus (020), Janira (0*5), Henopomu^

Munna (0 66).

Cymothojdea. iEga (0-4).

Serolidea.— Serolis (0*2), Praniza (015), Anceus (0*25). Arcturtdea Arcturus (05).

Tanaidea. Tanais (0#5), Ziriope, Crossurus, Phryxus, Dajus.

Caprellidea.— Proto (0'5), Caprella (024), iEgina, Cercop*, Podalirius.

Gammaridea. Dulichia, Siphoncecetes, Unciola (0*5), Podocerus, (0'5), Laphys- tius, Orchestia (007), Stegocephalus, Opis (0 66), Uristea, Anonyx, (0'9), Leucothoe (066), Acanthonotus, (075), Iphimedia (0-6), (Edieerus (0'5), Gammarus (0*33), Melita (0*5), Pardalisca, Isckyrocerus, M'tchrocheles, Pontoporeia, Ampelisca, Pro- tomedeia, Pkoxus.

Hyperidea.— Hyperia (014), Metcecus, Tauria, Themuto, (3 0).

The Spheromidse are nearly all cold-water species, though not reaching into the Frigid zone. There are forty-nine known